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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150062 matches for " Gregory F. Snyder "
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Relation Between Globular Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes in Ellipticals as a Manifestation of the Black Hole Fundamental Plane
Gregory F. Snyder,Philip F. Hopkins,Lars Hernquist
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/728/1/L24
Abstract: We analyze the relation between the mass of the central supermassive black hole (Mbh) and the number of globular clusters (Ngc) in elliptical galaxies and bulges as a ramification of the black hole fundamental plane, the theoretically predicted and observed multi-variable correlation between Mbh and bulge binding energy. Although the tightness of the Mbh-Ngc correlation suggests an unlikely causal link between supermassive black holes and globular clusters, such a correspondence can exhibit small scatter even if the physical relationship is indirect. We show that the relatively small scatter of the Mbh-Ngc relation owes to the mutual residual correlation of Mbh and Ngc with stellar mass when the velocity dispersion is held fixed. Thus, present observations lend evidence for feedback-regulated models in which the bulge binding energy is most important; they do not necessarily imply any `special' connection between globular clusters and Mbh. This raises the question of why Ngc traces the formation of ellipticals and bulges sufficiently well to be correlated with binding energy.
K+A Galaxies as the Aftermath of Gas-Rich Mergers: Simulating the Evolution of Galaxies as Seen by Spectroscopic Surveys
Gregory F. Snyder,Thomas J. Cox,Christopher C. Hayward,Lars Hernquist,Patrik Jonsson
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/77
Abstract: Models of poststarburst (or "K+A") galaxies are constructed by combining fully three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers with radiative transfer calculations of dust attenuation. Spectral line catalogs are generated automatically from moderate-resolution optical spectra calculated as a function of merger progress in each of a large suite of simulations. The mass, gas fraction, orbital parameters, and mass ratio of the merging galaxies are varied systematically, showing that the lifetime and properties of the K+A phase are strong functions of merger scenario. K+A durations are generally less than ~0.1-0.3 Gyr, significantly shorter than the commonly assumed 1 Gyr, which is obtained only in rare cases, owing to a wide variation in star formation histories resulting from different orbital and progenitor configurations. Combined with empirical merger rates, the model lifetimes predict rapidly-rising K+A fractions as a function of redshift that are consistent with results of large spectroscopic surveys, resolving tension between the observed K+A abundance and that predicted when one assumes the K+A duration is the lifetime of A stars (~1 Gyr). The effects of dust attenuation, viewing angle, and aperture bias on our models are analyzed. In some cases, the K+A features are longer-lived and more pronounced when AGN feedback removes dust from the center, uncovering the young stars formed during the burst. In this picture, the K+A phase begins during or shortly after the bright starburst/AGN phase in violent mergers, and thus offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of quasar and star formation feedback on the gas reservoir and evolution of the remnant. Analytic fitting formulae are provided for the estimates of K+A incidence as a function of merger scenario.
Modeling the Initial Conditions of Interacting Galaxy Pairs Using Identikit
S. Alireza Mortazavi,Jennifer M. Lotz,Joshua E. Barnes,Gregory F. Snyder
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We develop and test an automated technique to model the dynamics of interacting galaxy pairs. We use Identikit (Barnes & Hibbard 2009, Barnes 2011) as a tool for modeling and matching the morphology and kinematics of the interacting pairs of equal-mass galaxies. In order to reduce the effect of subjective human judgement, we automate the selection of phase-space regions used to match simulations to data, and we explore how selection of these regions affects the random uncertainties of parameters in the best-fit model. In this work, we use an independent set of GADGET SPH simulations as input data to determine the systematic bias in the measured encounter parameters based on the known initial conditions of these simulations. We test both cold gas and young stellar components in the GADGET simulations to explore the effect of choosing HI vs. H$\alpha$ as the line of sight velocity tracer. We find that we can group the results into tests with good, fair, and poor convergence based on the distribution of parameters of models close to the best-fit model. For tests with good and fair convergence, we rule out large fractions of parameter space and recover merger stage, eccentricity, pericentric distance, viewing angle, and initial disc orientations within 3$\sigma$ of the correct value. All of tests on prograde-prograde systems have either good or fair convergence. The results of tests on edge-on discs are less biased than face-on tests. Retrograde and polar systems do not converge and may require constraints from regions other than the tidal tails and bridges.
Modeling Mid-Infrared Diagnostics of Obscured Quasars and Starbursts
Gregory F. Snyder,Christopher C. Hayward,Anna Sajina,Patrik Jonsson,Thomas J. Cox,Lars Hernquist,Philip F. Hopkins,Lin Yan
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/768/2/168
Abstract: We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z ~ 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z ~ 2 to 4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant PAH emission, and ends with a ~10^9 yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and enhances the 9.7 micron absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 micron, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.
Galactic Angular Momentum in the Illustris Simulation: Feedback and the Hubble Sequence
Shy Genel,S. Michael Fall,Lars Hernquist,Mark Vogelsberger,Gregory F. Snyder,Vicente Rodriguez-Gomez,Debora Sijacki,Volker Springel
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/L40
Abstract: We study the stellar angular momentum of thousands of galaxies in the Illustris cosmological simulation, which captures gravitational and gas dynamics within galaxies, as well as feedback from stars and black holes. We find that the angular momentum of the simulated galaxies matches observations well, and in particular two distinct relations are found for late-type versus early-type galaxies. The relation for late-type galaxies corresponds to the value expected from full conservation of the specific angular momentum generated by cosmological tidal torques. The relation for early-type galaxies corresponds to retention of only ~30% of that, but we find that those early-type galaxies with low angular momentum at z=0 nevertheless reside at high redshift on the late-type relation. Some of them abruptly lose angular momentum during major mergers. To gain further insight, we explore the scaling relations in simulations where the galaxy formation physics is modified with respect to the fiducial model. We find that galactic winds with high mass-loading factors are essential for obtaining the high angular momentum relation typical for late-type galaxies, while AGN feedback largely operates in the opposite direction. Hence, feedback controls the stellar angular momentum of galaxies, and appears to be instrumental for establishing the Hubble sequence.
Introducing the Illustris Project: Simulating the coevolution of dark and visible matter in the Universe
Mark Vogelsberger,Shy Genel,Volker Springel,Paul Torrey,Debora Sijacki,Dandan Xu,Gregory F. Snyder,Dylan Nelson,Lars Hernquist
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1536
Abstract: We introduce the Illustris Project, a series of large-scale hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. The highest resolution simulation, Illustris-1, covers a volume of $(106.5\,{\rm Mpc})^3$, has a dark mass resolution of ${6.26 \times 10^{6}\,{\rm M}_\odot}$, and an initial baryonic matter mass resolution of ${1.26 \times 10^{6}\,{\rm M}_\odot}$. At $z=0$ gravitational forces are softened on scales of $710\,{\rm pc}$, and the smallest hydrodynamical gas cells have an extent of $48\,{\rm pc}$. We follow the dynamical evolution of $2\times 1820^3$ resolution elements and in addition passively evolve $1820^3$ Monte Carlo tracer particles reaching a total particle count of more than $18$ billion. The galaxy formation model includes: primordial and metal-line cooling with self-shielding corrections, stellar evolution, stellar feedback, gas recycling, chemical enrichment, supermassive black hole growth, and feedback from active galactic nuclei. At $z=0$ our simulation volume contains about $40,000$ well-resolved galaxies covering a diverse range of morphologies and colours including early-type, late-type and irregular galaxies. The simulation reproduces reasonably well the cosmic star formation rate density, the galaxy luminosity function, and baryon conversion efficiency at $z=0$. It also qualitatively captures the impact of galaxy environment on the red fractions of galaxies. The internal velocity structure of selected well-resolved disk galaxies obeys the stellar and baryonic Tully-Fisher relation together with flat circular velocity curves. In the well-resolved regime the simulation reproduces the observed mix of early-type and late-type galaxies. Our model predicts a halo mass dependent impact of baryonic effects on the halo mass function and the masses of haloes caused by feedback from supernova and active galactic nuclei.
Diverse Structural Evolution at z > 1 in Cosmologically Simulated Galaxies
Gregory F. Snyder,Jennifer Lotz,Christopher Moody,Michael Peth,Peter Freeman,Daniel Ceverino,Joel Primack,Avishai Dekel
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1231
Abstract: From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 < z < 3. We measure automated diagnostics of galaxy morphology in cosmological simulations of the formation of 22 central galaxies with 9.3 < log10 M_*/M_sun < 10.7. These high-spatial-resolution zoom-in calculations enable accurate modeling of the rest-frame UV and optical morphology. Even with small numbers of galaxies, we find that structural evolution is neither universal nor monotonic: galaxy interactions can trigger either bulge or disc formation, and optically bulge-dominated galaxies at this mass may not remain so forever. Simulated galaxies with M_* > 10^10 M_sun contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 < z < 2. By this epoch, simulated galaxies with specific star formation rates below 10^-9.7 yr^-1 are more likely than normal star-formers to have a broader mix of structural types, especially at M_* > 10^10 M_sun. We analyze a cosmological major merger at z ~ 1.5 and find that the newly proposed MID morphology diagnostics trace later merger stages while G-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is less than 100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.
H$α$ Star Formation Rates of $z$ > 1 Galaxy Clusters in the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey
Gregory Zeimann,S. A. Stanford,Mark Brodwin,Anthony H. Gonzalez,Conor Mancone,Gregory F. Snyder,Daniel Stern,Peter Eisenhardt,Arjun Dey,John Moustakas
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/779/2/137
Abstract: We present Hubble Space Telescope near-IR spectroscopy for 18 galaxy clusters at 1.0 < $z$ < 1.5 in the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey. We use Wide Field Camera 3 grism data to spectroscopically identify H$\alpha$ emitters in both the cores of galaxy clusters as well as in field galaxies. We find a large cluster-to-cluster scatter in the star formation rates within a projected radius of 500 kpc, and many of our clusters (~60%) have significant levels of star formation within a projected radius of 200 kpc. A stacking analysis reveals that dust reddening in these star-forming galaxies is positively correlated with stellar mass and may be higher in the field than the cluster at a fixed stellar mass. This may indicate a lower amount of gas in star-forming cluster galaxies than in the field population. Also, H$\alpha$ equivalent widths of star-forming galaxies in the cluster environment are still suppressed below the level of the field. This suppression is most significant for lower mass galaxies (log M$_{*}$ < 10.0 M$_{\odot}$). We therefore conclude that environmental effects are still important at 1.0 < $z$ < 1.5 for star-forming galaxies in galaxy clusters with log M$_{*}$ < 10.0 M$_{\odot}$.
IDCS J1433.2+3306: An IR-Selected Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.89
Gregory R. Zeimann,S. A. Stanford,Mark Brodwin,Anthony H. Gonzalez,Gregory F. Snyder,Daniel Stern,Peter Eisenhardt,Conor Mancone,Arjun Dey
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/115
Abstract: We report the discovery of an IR-selected galaxy cluster in the IRAC Distant Cluster Survey (IDCS). New data from the Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1433.2+3306 at z = 1.89 with robust spectroscopic redshifts for seven members, two of which are based on the 4000 Angstrom break. Detected emission lines such as [OII] and Hbeta indicate star formation rates of >20 solar masses per year for three galaxies within a 500 kpc projected radius of the cluster center. The cluster exhibits a red sequence with a scatter and color indicative of a formation redshift z > 3.5. The stellar age of the early-type galaxy population is approximately consistent with those of clusters at lower redshift (1 < z < 1.5) suggesting that clusters at these redshifts are experiencing ongoing or increasing star formation.
IDCS J1426+3508: Discovery of a Massive, IR-Selected Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.75
S. A. Stanford,M. Brodwin,Anthony H. Gonzalez,Greg Zeimann,Daniel Stern,Arjun Dey,P. R. Eisenhardt,Gregory F. Snyder,C. Mancone
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/2/164
Abstract: We report the discovery of an IR-selected massive galaxy cluster in the IRAC Distant Cluster Survey (IDCS). We present new data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the W. M. Keck Observatory that spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1426+3508 at z=1.75. Moreover, the cluster is detected in archival Chandra data as an extended X-ray source, comprising 54 counts after the removal of point sources. We calculate an X-ray luminosity of L{0.5-2 keV} = (5.5 +/- 1.2) X 1e44 ergs/s within r = 60 arcsec (~1 Mpc diameter), which implies M_{200,L_x} = (5.6 +/- 1.6) X 1e14 Msun. IDCS J1426+3508 appears to be an exceptionally massive cluster for its redshift.
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