Abstract:
We extend the capabilities of neural networks by coupling them to external memory resources, which they can interact with by attentional processes. The combined system is analogous to a Turing Machine or Von Neumann architecture but is differentiable end-to-end, allowing it to be efficiently trained with gradient descent. Preliminary results demonstrate that Neural Turing Machines can infer simple algorithms such as copying, sorting, and associative recall from input and output examples.

Abstract:
This study examined the role of lymphotoxin (LT)- in host defense against airborne infection with Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Following a low-dose aerosol infection with the highly virulent type A strain of F. tularensis, mice deficient in LT (LT−/−) consistently harbored approximately 10-fold fewer bacteria in their spleens at day 2 and 10-fold more bacteria in their lungs at day 4 than LT

Abstract:
We present a unified framework for learning continuous control policies using backpropagation. It supports stochastic control by treating stochasticity in the Bellman equation as a deterministic function of exogenous noise. The product is a spectrum of general policy gradient algorithms that range from model-free methods with value functions to model-based methods without value functions. We use learned models but only require observations from the environment in- stead of observations from model-predicted trajectories, minimizing the impact of compounded model errors. We apply these algorithms first to a toy stochastic control problem and then to several physics-based control problems in simulation. One of these variants, SVG(1), shows the effectiveness of learning models, value functions, and policies simultaneously in continuous domains.

Two related and under-studied components of modeling are: a) the process by which simplifying assumptions are derived; and b) the process by which tests of model validity are designed. This case study illustrates these processes for two simple investment models: a) a version of the model supporting classical portfolio theory; and b) a version of a mean-reverting model consistent with some of the tenets of behavioral finance. We perform a simulation that demonstrates that the traditional method of empirically assessing the performance of value investment strategies is underpowered. Indeed, the simulation illustrates in a narrow technical sense how to make something out of nothing; namely, how to generate increased returns while reducing risk. Analyzing the mechanism underpinning this counter-intuitive result helps to illustrate the close and sometimes unexpected relationship between the substantial assumptions made about the systems being modeled, the mathematical assumptions used to build models of those systems, and the structure of the experiments used to assess the performance of those models.

Abstract:
Presented in this manuscript are conventional electrical engineering tools to model the earth as a rotating electrical machine. Calculations using known parameters of the earth and measured field data has resulted in new understanding of the earth’s electrical system and gyroscopic rotation. The material makeup of the inner earth is better understood based on derived permeability and permittivity constants. The planet has been modeled as simple coils and then as a parallel impedance circuit which has led to fundamental insight into planetary speed control and RLC combination for Schumann Resonance of 7.83 Hz. Torque and Voltage Constants and the inverse Speed Constant are calculated using three methods and all compare favorably with Newton’s Gravitational Constant. A helical resonator is referenced and Schumann’s Resonant ideal frequency is calculated and compared with others idealism. A new theory of gravity based on particle velocity selector at the poles is postulated. Two equations are presented as the needed links between Faraday’s electromagnetism and Newtonian physics. Acceleration and Deceleration of earth is explained as a centripetal governor. A new equation for planetary attraction and the attraction of atomic matter is theorized. Rotation of the earth’s electrical coil is explained in terms of the Richardson effect. Electric power transfer from the sun to the planets is proposed via Flux Transfer Events. The impact of this evolving science of electromagnetic modeling of planets will be magnified as the theory is proven, and found to be useful for future generations of engineers and scientists who seek to discover our world and other planets.

Abstract:
The Sun’s slow periodic flux transfer to the Earth, the low frequency of Schumann Resonance, and the fixed DC voltage of the capacitor direct us toward direct current (DC) machines for electrical modeling purposes. The Earth exhibits dual characteristics of a motor generator set by motoring the mechanical Earth around its axis, while at the same time generating energy for its spherical capacitor. It follows that electrical and mechanical output of the Earth are powered by the magnitude of the flux transfer events, the constant DC voltage supply and any potential nuclear contribution within the core. Like an induction furnace, powerful magnetic flux from the Sun partially melts the outer iron core of the Earth and magnetizes the inner solid iron core. The solid inner magnetic core acts as a rotating armature similar to a DC machine. All electrical machines experience no load and full load power loss while in operation. Speed control of large rotating DC machines is well understood and has been applied in industry for over a century. Speed can be changed either by varying the field resistance and/or the armature resistance. The characteristic of a constant speed DC machine is such that a change in field resistance will cause a compensatory change in armature resistance to maintain velocity. In the case of the earth, a decrease in armature resistance results in an increase in volume of the iron core, which may result in greater seismic and volcanic activity. Climate change may be the direct result of changes in soil and sea water resistance, which we lump together as field resistance.

This study was performed in order to determine
visitation at remote areas that would be unaffordable due to logistic reasons. Four
Trafx^{TM} vehicle counters, each programmed with different settings, were placed
along the lone access road to remotely sense the daily use activities and count
accuracy at the New Underwood Lake Public Water Access Area. Use was
corroborated during daylight hours with game cameras. Data was stratified
between weekdays/weekends due to differences between the two periods. Two
counter settings, threshold and delay, were best when set at a value of 8, but
a value of 16 for delay provided almost equal results. Overall, there were 38
counts of use per day for a total of 2318 over the 61 day period. This study
demonstrated how vehicle counters, in combination with game cameras for
verification, can aid managers for determining use in remote access areas. Future
work may lead to identifying details for producing a surrogate to traditional
angler use surveys.

Abstract:
Planets are interconnected via magnetic field lines, which allow flux transfer events. In this paper, a thought experiment is performed whereby the Sun and planets are visualized as a violin with magnetic field lines analogous to strings of the violin. Frequency calculations for vibrating strings between the Earth and Sun compare favorably with measured satellite data for flux transfer events. Ideal Schumann Resonance was calculated using speed of light, diameter of the Earth and Earth’s gravity for tension. The force of attraction and repulsion of magnets is analogous to tension and compression resulting from tremendously low frequency (TLF) electromechanical waves. Gravity waves are thus theorized as mechanical waves brought about by the tension of electron strings, which also act dually as electromagnetic waves. Future harmonic analysis of flux transfer wave forms for each planet would add credence to the string theory as the theory of everything.

Abstract:
A new universal equation using
planet magnetic pole strength is presented and given reasoning for its assemblage.
Coulomb’s Constant, normally used in calculating electrostatic force is utilized
in a new magnetic dipole equation for the first time, along with specific orbital
energy. Results were generated for five planets that give insight into specific
orbital energy as an energy constant for differing planets based on gravitational
potential at the surface of a planet. Specific energy can be evaluated as both energy
per unit volume (J/kg) and/or specific orbital energy (m^{2}/s^{2}).
Due to a multitude of terms that lead to confusion it is recommended that the IEEE
standards committee review specific orbital energy SI units for m^{2}/s^{2}.
The magic number for cyclonic “lift off”, or anti-gravity, is calculated to be ∈ = 148 m^{2}/s^{2} the value at which a classical law of magnetism appears as F = k_{e} × H.