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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202559 matches for " Greg P Boivin "
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Atonal homolog 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene
Wouter Bossuyt,Avedis Kazanjian,Natalie De Geest,Sofie Van Kelst,Gert De Hertogh,Karel Geboes,Greg P. Boivin,Judith Luciani,Francois Fuks,Marinee Chuah,Thierry VandenDriessche,Peter Marynen,Jan Cools,Noah F. Shroyer,Bassem A. Hassan
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000039
Abstract: Colon cancer accounts for more than 10% of all cancer deaths annually. Our genetic evidence from Drosophila and previous in vitro studies of mammalian Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1, also called Math1 or Hath1) suggest an anti-oncogenic function for the Atonal group of proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. We asked whether mouse Atoh1 and human ATOH1 act as tumor suppressor genes in vivo. Genetic knockouts in mouse and molecular analyses in the mouse and in human cancer cell lines support a tumor suppressor function for ATOH1. ATOH1 antagonizes tumor formation and growth by regulating proliferation and apoptosis, likely via activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, colorectal cancer and Merkel cell carcinoma patients show genetic and epigenetic ATOH1 loss-of-function mutations. Our data indicate that ATOH1 may be an early target for oncogenic mutations in tissues where it instructs cellular differentiation.
Atonal homolog 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene
Wouter Bossuyt equal contributor,Avedis Kazanjian equal contributor,Natalie De Geest,Sofie Van Kelst,Gert De Hertogh,Karel Geboes,Greg P Boivin,Judith Luciani,Francois Fuks,Marinee Chuah,Thierry VandenDriessche,Peter Marynen,Jan Cools,Noah F Shroyer ,Bassem A Hassan
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000039
Abstract: Colon cancer accounts for more than 10% of all cancer deaths annually. Our genetic evidence from Drosophila and previous in vitro studies of mammalian Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1, also called Math1 or Hath1) suggest an anti-oncogenic function for the Atonal group of proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. We asked whether mouse Atoh1 and human ATOH1 act as tumor suppressor genes in vivo. Genetic knockouts in mouse and molecular analyses in the mouse and in human cancer cell lines support a tumor suppressor function for ATOH1. ATOH1 antagonizes tumor formation and growth by regulating proliferation and apoptosis, likely via activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, colorectal cancer and Merkel cell carcinoma patients show genetic and epigenetic ATOH1 loss-of-function mutations. Our data indicate that ATOH1 may be an early target for oncogenic mutations in tissues where it instructs cellular differentiation.
Transcriptional recapitulation and subversion of embryonic colon development by mouse colon tumor models and human colon cancer
Sergio Kaiser, Young-Kyu Park, Jeffrey L Franklin, Richard B Halberg, Ming Yu, Walter J Jessen, Johannes Freudenberg, Xiaodi Chen, Kevin Haigis, Anil G Jegga, Sue Kong, Bhuvaneswari Sakthivel, Huan Xu, Timothy Reichling, Mohammad Azhar, Gregory P Boivin, Reade B Roberts, Anika C Bissahoyo, Fausto Gonzales, Greg C Bloom, Steven Eschrich, Scott L Carter, Jeremy E Aronow, John Kleimeyer, Michael Kleimeyer, Vivek Ramaswamy, Stephen H Settle, Braden Boone, Shawn Levy, Jonathan M Graff
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r131
Abstract: We report here that 39 colon tumors from four independent mouse models and 100 human CRCs encompassing all clinical stages shared a striking recapitulation of embryonic colon gene expression. Compared to normal adult colon, all mouse and human tumors over-expressed a large cluster of genes highly enriched for functional association to the control of cell cycle progression, proliferation, and migration, including those encoding MYC, AKT2, PLK1 and SPARC. Mouse tumors positive for nuclear β-catenin shifted the shared embryonic pattern to that of early development. Human and mouse tumors differed from normal embryonic colon by their loss of expression modules enriched for tumor suppressors (EDNRB, HSPE, KIT and LSP1). Human CRC adenocarcinomas lost an additional suppressor module (IGFBP4, MAP4K1, PDGFRA, STAB1 and WNT4). Many human tumor samples also gained expression of a coordinately regulated module associated with advanced malignancy (ABCC1, FOXO3A, LIF, PIK3R1, PRNP, TNC, TIMP3 and VEGF).Cross-species, developmental, and multi-model gene expression patterning comparisons provide an integrated and versatile framework for definition of transcriptional programs associated with oncogenesis. This approach also provides a general method for identifying pattern-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This delineation and categorization of developmental and non-developmental activator and suppressor gene modules can thus facilitate the formulation of sophisticated hypotheses to evaluate potential synergistic effects of targeting within- and between-modules for next-generation combinatorial therapeutics and improved mouse models.The colon is composed of a dynamic and self-renewing epithelium that turns over every three to five days. It is generally accepted that at the base of the crypt, variable numbers (between 1 and 16) of slowly dividing, stationary, pluripotent stem cells give rise to more rapidly proliferating, transient amplifying cells. These cells differentia
Seizure activity and neurological sequelae in Ugandan children who have survived an episode of cerebral malaria
RO Opoka, P Bangirana, MJ Boivin, CC John, J Byarugaba
African Health Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Seizures are a common presenting feature in children with cerebral malaria (CM) and neurologic deficits have been described in survivors of CM. However few prospective studies have described the frequency of seizure activity and neurologic deficits in survivors of CM over time. Methods: Eighty-two children aged 3 to 12 years who survived an episode of CM were followed up and monitored for seizure activity and neurologic deficits at discharge, 3, 6 and 24 months. Seventy six children with uncomplicated malaria (UM) and 105 healthy community controls (CC) age 3 to 12 years were recruited as comparison groups and the frequency of seizures in the 6 to 24 month follow-up period was compared in the 3 groups. Results: Cumulative incidence of seizures increased over time in children with CM, with a total of 2 of 76 children (2.6%) reporting seizures at 3 months, 3 of 74 children (4.1%) at 6 months and 11 of 68 children (16.2%) at 24 months (Chi square for trend = 9.36, P=0.002). In contrast, neurologic deficits almost completely resolved over time, occurring in 19 of 76 children with CM (25%) at discharge, 2 of 74 children (2.7%) at 6 months, and 1 of 68 (1.5%) children at 24 months. Conclusions: During the 24 months following a CM episode, neurologic deficits resolve but the cumulative incidence of seizures increases in children with CM. Neurologic impairment after an episode of CM may not be limited to the neurologic deficits seen at discharge.
Inner structure of the Puy de D me volcano: cross-comparison of geophysical models (ERT, Gravimetry, Muonic Imagery)
A. Portal,S. Béné,P. Boivin,E. Busato
Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/gid-2-703-2012
Abstract: Muon imagery of volcanoes and geological structures are presently and actively developed by several groups in the world. It has the potential to provide a 2-D or 3-D density distribution with an accuracy of a few percent. However, at this stage of the development of the method, comparisons with the results from established geophysical methods are necessary to validate its results. An experiment is currently carried out at the Puy de D me volcano involving the concurrent acquisition of muon imagery, electrical resistivity (2-D tomography) and gravity survey. Here, we present the preliminary results for the last two methods. North-south and east-west resistivity sections have been obtained in June 2011 and May 2012. These electric data allow to model of the distribution of the resistivity values down to the base of the dome. The dome and its surroundings are now mapped with more than 300 gravity stations measured during a detailed gravity survey carried out in March and May 2012. The computed Bouguer anomaly can be interpreted by models of the density distribution within the dome. This will be directly comparable with the results from the muon imagery. Our ultimate goal is to derive a model of the dome using the joint interpretation of all the sets of data.
Phenotypic plasticity and fitness in egg parasitoids
Boivin, Guy;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000400001
Abstract: several proxies can be used to estimate the fitness of egg parasitoids: size, longevity, fecundity, mating ability and vagility. all these proxies are positively correlated with the lifetime fitness gain of an individual. however, the phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability of a genotype to produce distinct phenotypes depending on environmental conditions, may alter the value of these proxies. host related factors (host species and quality), competition and duration of development will influence the proxies expressed by a given phenotype. when the phenotype is modified by the temperature at which an individual develops, the resulting phenotype will vary based on the life history strategy of the parasitoid. while in koinobiont species an increase in size is positively correlated with longevity and fecundity, the reverse occurs with idiobiont parasitoids. using size as a proxy could thus be misleading depending on the factors that influence the size of the adult.
Hiérophanie et sotériologie dans les traditions ismaéliennes du sous-continent indo-pakistanais
Michel Boivin
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.260
Abstract: Vers 1845, Hasan 'Al Shah, le guide divin (imam) des Ismaéliens, trouva refuge dans le sous-continent indien. Auprès de ses disciples indiens, les Khojahs, il exalta sa filiation avec l'imam Husayn pour légitimer son statut de sauveur, favorisant ainsi le développement des rituels shiites liés à Moharram. Son successeur 'Al Shah poursuivit cette uvre avec la création du culte d'Am r P r, où il essayait de marquer l'identité propre des Ismaéliens. Enfin, Sultan Muhammad Shah éradiqua tous les intercesseurs pour se présenter comme le qa'im, un sauveur individuel accessible à tous ici et maintenant.Dans la littérature religieuse des Khojahs (ginan-s), bien que 'Al soit présenté comme le mahdi, l'imam est qualifié de Naklank , nom du 10e avatar de Vishn , dont la parousie, chez les Hindous, est encore à venir. En revanche, chez les Ismaéliens de tradition persane du nord du Pakistan, l'imam est le qa'im qui sauve les croyants individuellement, cet acte constituant une condition pour participer à la Résurrection orchestrée par le mahdi, le premier imam 'Al . Les Ismaéliens ont par conséquent fait passer au premier plan le salut spirituel, alors que la Résurrection finale est reléguée dans un temps indéterminé. Around 1845, Hasan 'Al Shah, who was the divine guide (imam) of the Ismailis, took refuge in the Indian subcontinent. To his Indian followers, the Khojahs, he emphasized his filiation with imam Husayn as a way of legitimizing his statute of saviour, all the while favoring the development of the Shii rituals of Moharram. His successor, 'Al Shah, carried on this pursuit of creating Am r P r with which he tried to associate the proper identity of the Ismailis. But, Sultan Muhammad Shah eliminated all intercessors and presented himself as the qa'im, an individual savior accesible to all here and now.In the religious literature of the Khojahs (ginan-s), although 'Al appears as the mahdi, the imam is known as Naklank , the name given to the 10th avatar of Vishn , which is not yet revealed for the Hindus. However, In the Northern Pakistan tradition, the imam is the qa'im who individually saves the believers, this being a condition for the Resurection led by the mahdi, the first imam 'Al . The Ismailis consequently put individual salvation very much to the fore, even when the final Resurection will happen at an unknown time.
Les hindous de Karachi dans la perspective historique.De la domination socio-économique à la marginalisation minoritaire A Historical View of the Hindu of Karachi: from Social and Economic Domination to Marginalized Minority.
Michel Boivin
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.2798
Abstract: On estime que les hindous sont entre 500 000 et 1 million à Karachi. Leur situation a connu une transformation radicale depuis la partition, en 1947. Ils étaient en effet majoritaires avant cette date, avant de devenir minoritaires. La première partie reviendra sur leur situation pré-partionniste, plus particulièrement sur leur organisation morcelée, leurs rapports avec les autres communautés, leur r le dans la modernisation de Karachi, et enfin le marquage du territoire urbain. L’épreuve de la partition constituera le thème de la deuxième partie. Après avoir évalué la participation des hindous à la lutte nationaliste à Karachi, il faudra analyser dans quelles conditions l’exode en Inde s’est réalisé et quelles en furent les conséquences pour les hindous restés à Karachi. La présence hindoue dans la Karachi post-partionniste se traduit par une “ghetto sation” des quartiers, mais elle n’est pas accompagnée de modifications majeures dans l’occupation de l’espace urbain. La dernière partie sera consacrée à l’étude de la situation actuelle des hindous de Karachi. Quels sont les rapports des hindous avec le pouvoir fédéral, local et municipal ? Les conditions de l’exercice du culte seront ensuite étudiées ainsi que le développement associatif comme expression culturelle de la communauté. The Hindus are said to be between 500 000 and one million in Karachi. Before partition, the Hndus were in majority in the city but after 1947, most of them migrated to India where they settled. After this very important shifting, they became a religious minority in the newly born Pakistan. The first part of the paper will deal with their situation before partition, especially their organisation, their relation with other religious communities, the role they played in the modernisation of the city, and finally how they put their mark on the urban territory. The topic of the second part will be partition. After analysing to what extent the Hindus took part in nationalist fight, it will be necessary to study the conditions in which migration to India occurred, and what were the new conditions of life for the Hindus who stayed in Karachi. Even if the Hindus low castes were to reinforce the process of “ghettoisation”, no major change happened in the organisation of the urban territory. The last part will be devoted to the present situation of the Hindus in Karachi. What are their relations with the government, national as well as provincial? The cult and the Hindu practise will be studied and the transmission of religious knowledge, where caste associations played a leading role.
Sabrina Mervin, Un réformisme chiite. Ulémas et lettrés du Gabal ‘Amil (actuel Liban-Sud) de la fin de l'empire ottoman à l'indépendance du Liban, Paris-Beyrouth-Damas, Karthala-CERMOC-IFEAD, 2000.
Michel Boivin
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2004,
Abstract: Si, comme le note l'auteur dans son introduction, le réformisme sunnite n'a pas suscité l'intérêt des orientalistes et arabisants, alors que dire du réformisme chiite ! Pour le premier, Sabrina Mervin rappelle justement le r le de pionnier que joua jadis Henri Laoust, à une époque (1932) où l'orientalisme était dominé par les études classiques. On a considéré pendant longtemps que la doctrine chiite s'opposait à tout réformisme et lorsque des études furent consacrées à l'Iran du xixe et du xx...
Ahmad Irfan, Islam and Democrary. The Transformation of Jamaat-e-Islami, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2009, 306 p.
Michel Boivin
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2011,
Abstract: Le livre publié par Irfan Ahmad est le texte révisé de la thèse qu’il a soutenue en 2005 à l’université d’Amsterdam. On notera qu’entre la soutenance et la publication du livre, il (ou son éditeur) a préféré renoncer à l’emploi de deux termes du titre. Sa thèse s’intitulait, en effet, From Islamism to Post-Islamism, or dans le livre, le titre est devenu Islam and Democracy. On se réjouit, néanmoins, de cette publication qui nous donne un éclairage neuf sur une organisation, la Jamaat-e-Islami...
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