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Brazil has become one of the top producers and exporters of food, fibre, and bionergy in the world.The expansion of livestock and soybean production in the Amazon basin appears to be independent of the sugarcane expansion in southeastern Brazil whereas the impact of sugarcane expansion over areas of soybean plantation in previous Cerrado biome is still unknown. However, the expansion of sugarcane production in the state of S?o Paulohas been shown to cause an increase in the local abundance of rodents and result in the emergence of infectious diseases such as hantaviruses and leptospirosis in humans. In addition, with an increase in the use of agrochemicals there will be an increase in euthrophication of watercourses and soil pollution. Considering that S?o Paulo has a population of approximately 40 million people, these local impacts are relevant. Environmental law should be improved and enforced in Brazil to ensure that sugarcane production is not only economically profitable but also environmentally responsible.