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Development and Test of a New Solar-Air Heat Exchanger for the Linear Mirror II System  [PDF]
Hans Grassmann, Marco Citossi
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2019.105010
Abstract: The Linear Mirror II is an innovative system to concentrate solar energy, developed by Isomorph SRL. In this paper, a solar-air heat exchanger of new conception is presented and tested together with a Linear Mirror II. The heat exchanger surface is selective with respect to direction and position of light absorption and emission and once heated by the Linear Mirror II, can reach an air temperature of up to 230°C.
First Measurements with a Linear Mirror Device of Second Generation  [PDF]
H. Grassmann, J. J. Huaman Aguilar, E. Kapllaj
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.43030
Abstract: In 2011, an innovative technique for concentrating solar light has been introduced in the market—the Linear Mirror. It is a very simple device, and it works well also in winter and in northern climates. In 2012, it was certified with the Solar Keymark. Based on this technology, a further improved device was developed and was presented here—the Linear Mirror of second generation (or Linear Mirror II). This is a multi-purpose machine, which overcomes some of the limitations of the previous device. First measurements with the Linear Mirror II are presented in this paper.
Implementing a DVB-T/H Receiver on a Software-Defined Radio Platform
Yong Jiang,Wen Xu,Cyprian Grassmann
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/937848
Abstract: Digital multimedia broadcasting is available in more and more countries with various forms. One of the most successful forms is Digital Video Broadcasting for Terrestrial (DVB-T), which has been deployed in most countries of the world for years. In order to bring the digital multimedia broadcasting services to battery-powered handheld receivers in a mobile environment, Digital Video Broadcasting for Handheld (DVB-H) has been formally adopted by ETSI. More advanced and complex digital multimedia broadcasting systems are under development, for example, the next generation of DVB-T, a.k.a. DVB-T2. Current commercial DVB-T/H receivers are usually built upon dedicated application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). However, ASICs are not flexible for incoming evolved standards and less overall-area efficient since they cannot be efficiently reused and shared among different radio standards, when we integrate a DVB-T/H receiver into a mobile phone. This paper presents an example implementation of a DVB-T/H receiver on the prototype of Infineon Technologies' Software-Defined Radio (SDR) platform called MuSIC (Multiple SIMD Cores), which is a DSP-centered and accelerator-assisted architecture and aims at battery-powered mass-market handheld terminals.
Cell Surface Markers in HTLV-1 Pathogenesis
Andrea K. Kress,Ralph Grassmann,Bernhard Fleckenstein
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3081439
Abstract: The phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed CD4+ T lymphocytes largely depends on defined viral effector molecules such as the viral oncoprotein Tax. In this review, we exemplify the expression pattern of characteristic lineage markers, costimulatory receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, cytokine receptors, and adhesion molecules on HTLV-1-transformed cells. These molecules may provide survival signals for the transformed cells. Expression of characteristic surface markers might therefore contribute to persistence of HTLV-1-transformed lymphocytes and to the development of HTLV-1-associated disease.
MicroRNA miR-146a and further oncogenesis-related cellular microRNAs are dysregulated in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes
Klemens Pichler, Grit Schneider, Ralph Grassmann
Retrovirology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-5-100
Abstract: We report that several microRNAs – miRs 21, 24, 146a, 155 and 223 – are deregulated in HTLV-1-transformed cells. They are all upregulated except for miR-223, which is downregulated. Each of those microRNAs has ties to cancer. Their expression pattern forms a uniform phenotype among HTLV-transformed cells when compared to HTLV-negative control cells. In particular, miR-146a expression was found to be directly stimulated by Tax via NF-κB-mediated transactivation of its promoter; a single NF-κB site proximal to the transcription start point was necessary and sufficient for this to happen. An in silico analysis of potential target genes revealed candidates that might be coregulated by two or more of the aforementioned overexpressed microRNAs.These data demonstrate that cellular microRNAs are deregulated in HTLV-1-transformed T cells. In the case of miR-146a, this could be directly attributed to HTLV's oncoprotein Tax. Interference with cellular microRNAs may be crucial to maintaining persistence or may facilitate transformation of host cells.Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a δ-retrovirus infecting primarily CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo. Lifelong persistence ensues, which, after decades, can entail an aggressive neoplastic disease, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Another HTLV-1-associated disease presents as progressive neurodegeneration termed HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) [1-4]. HTLV's persistence manifests itself in T cell clones which remain detectable over many years even in non-leukemic infected individuals [5,6]. In the face of a continuous immune response this requires constant replenishment of infected cells. The virus achieves this through replication mainly in its provirus form, stimulation of cell division and, as a consequence, clonal amplification of infected cells.HTLV-1 encodes accessory and regulatory proteins. While the accessory ones, p12, p30, p13 [7,8] and HBZ [9], are important for infectivity a
The HTLV-1 Tax protein binding domain of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) includes the regulatory PSTAIRE helix
Kirsten Fraedrich, Birthe Müller, Ralph Grassmann
Retrovirology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-2-54
Abstract: To analyze, whether the N-terminus of Tax is capable of CDK4-binding, in vitro binding -, pull down -, and mammalian two-hybrid analyses were performed. These experiments revealed that a segment of 40 amino acids is sufficient to interact with CDK4 and cyclin D2. To define a Tax-binding domain and analyze how Tax influences the kinase activity, a series of CDK4 deletion mutants was tested. Different assays revealed two regions which upon deletion consistently result in reduced binding activity. These were isolated and subjected to mammalian two-hybrid analysis to test their potential to interact with the Tax N-terminus. These experiments concurrently revealed binding at the N- and C-terminus of CDK4. The N-terminal segment contains the PSTAIRE helix, which is known to control the access of substrate to the active cleft of CDK4 and thus the kinase activity.Since the N- and C-terminus of CDK4 are neighboring in the predicted three-dimensional protein structure, it is conceivable that they comprise a single binding domain, which interacts with the Tax N-terminus.The Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an essential regulator of viral replication and a critical determinant of the HTLV-induced diseases. These include the aggressive and fatal malignancy of CD4+ T-lymphocytes termed adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) [1-3]. Several lines of evidence indicate that p40tax is the oncogene responsible for viral lymphocyte-transforming and leukemogenic properties [4-7]. Mechanistically, several biochemical features of the protein can cooperate to transform, among them transcriptional stimulation of cellular signal transducers, cytokines [8-11] and anti-apoptotic effectors. Tax' capacity to stimulate aneuploidy and to interfere with DNA repair [12] could indirectly support malignant progression. A major mechanistic explanation for the mitogenic and immortalizing effects of the Tax oncoprotein is provided by its ability to stimulate the G1- to S-phase transition
Solar Biomass Pyrolysis with the Linear Mirror II  [PDF]
Hans Grassmann, Marta Boaro, Marco Citossi, Marina Cobal, Enrico Ersettis, Elvis Kapllaj, Andrea Pizzariello
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2015.67016
Abstract: A simple and innovative prototype for biomass pyrolysis is presented, together with some experimental results. The setup uses only the thermal solar energy provided by a system of reflecting mirrors (Linear Mirror II) to heat a selected agro-waste biomass, such as wheat straw. At the end of the pyrolysis process, solar carbon with a high energy density (around 24 - 28 MJ/kg) is produced from a biomass with an energy density of 16.9 MJ/kg. The perspectives for a future industrial application of this setup are also discussed.
Domestic Dogs Use Contextual Information and Tone of Voice when following a Human Pointing Gesture
Linda Scheider, Susanne Grassmann, Juliane Kaminski, Michael Tomasello
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021676
Abstract: Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the ‘context’ condition as opposed to the ‘no context’ condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.
Cellular Aspects of Prion Replication In Vitro
Andrea Grassmann,Hanna Wolf,Julia Hofmann,James Graham,Ina Vorberg
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5010374
Abstract: Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals that are caused by unconventional agents predominantly composed of aggregated misfolded prion protein (PrP). Prions self-propagate by recruitment of host-encoded PrP into highly ordered b -sheet rich aggregates. Prion strains differ in their clinical, pathological and biochemical characteristics and are likely to be the consequence of distinct abnormal prion protein conformers that stably replicate their alternate states in the host cell. Understanding prion cell biology is fundamental for identifying potential drug targets for disease intervention. The development of permissive cell culture models has greatly enhanced our knowledge on entry, propagation and dissemination of TSE agents. However, despite extensive research, the precise mechanism of prion infection and potential strain effects remain enigmatic. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell biology and propagation of prions derived from cell culture experiments. We discuss recent findings on the trafficking of cellular and pathologic PrP, the potential sites of abnormal prion protein synthesis and potential co-factors involved in prion entry and propagation.
Tapping Stem Cells to Target AMD: Challenges and Prospects
Caroline Brandl,Felix Grassmann,Julia Riolfi,Bernhard H. F. Weber
Journal of Clinical Medicine , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/jcm4020282
Abstract: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are increasingly gaining attention in biomedicine as valuable resources to establish patient-derived cell culture models of the cell type known to express the primary pathology. The idea of “a patient in a dish” aims at basic, but also clinical, applications with the promise to mimic individual genetic and metabolic complexities barely reflected in current invertebrate or vertebrate animal model systems. This may particularly be true for the inherited and complex diseases of the retina, as this tissue has anatomical and physiological aspects unique to the human eye. For example, the complex age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in Western societies, can be attributed to a large number of genetic and individual factors with so far unclear modes of mutual interaction. Here, we review the current status and future prospects of utilizing hPSCs, specifically induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), in basic and clinical AMD research, but also in assessing potential treatment options. We provide an outline of concepts for disease modelling and summarize ongoing and projected clinical trials for stem cell-based therapy in late-stage AMD.
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