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Efeito de algumas variáveis de processamento sobre propriedades organoléticas, físicas e químicas de massa obtida com a carne de poedeiras (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Graner, Murilo;
Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz , 1974, DOI: 10.1590/S0071-12761974000100009
Abstract: boned light weight hen meat was ground, cured, flavored with liquid smoke, and cooked. the effect of salts (sodium chloride alone and combined with phosphates), added at different time intervals postmortem, and before and after freezing, on sensory, physical, and chemical properties of the loaves was studied. poultry loaves of acceptable quality were obtained with meat that had been slowly frozen and stored at -23°c for a 40-50 day period. when the carcasses were pumped with salt solutions before freezing, only those samples having added phosphates were satisfactory as far as binding and other properties were concerned. the results suggest that tetrasodium pyrophosphate, combined with sodium chloride, when added to the meat immediately after slaughter, could improve the meat binding properties.
Elabora??o de fiambre com emuls?o de carne mista e gordura de frango (Gallus gallus), sem e com pele
Graner, Murilo;
Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0071-12761987000100013
Abstract: chicken loaves (emulsion type) were prepared with light and dark meat from broiler hand deboned breasts and legs, chicken fat, with and without skin. the meat was cured and smoked. processing yields were 1.10 - 1.22 1b of final product for each 1b of meat (or 0.38 - 0.42 1b for each 1b of ready-to-cook bird); the yield was higher for loaves containing skin. this meat ingredient (at 10% level) had no significant influence on quality and chemical composition of the product, which had approximately 64.9% of moisture, 18.4% of protein (moisture/protein ratio = 3.5), 12.6% of fat, 2.4% of sodium chloride and 63 ppm od sodium nitrite. the ph of the loaves averaged 6.1. storage of the loaves at -25°c for 30 days apparently did not affect quality.
Rendimentos no corte e na desossa manual parcial de carca?as resfriadas comerciais de frango (Gallus gallus)
Graner, Murilo;
Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0071-12761987000200015
Abstract: as part of a poultry meat processing study, breast (29%), legs (31%), back (26%) and wings (12,5%) were obtained from chilled ready-to-cook broiler carcasses of retail market. light meat (separated from breast) yield was 65% based ond breast weight and 18% based on carcass weight. dark meat (separated from legs) yield was 58% based on leg weight and 18% based on carcass weight. the carcasses had 5% of fat and 14% of skin. the yield of dark meat (based on carcass weight) decreased with the increase of carecass weight (p < 0.01) (r = -0,53).
Elabora??o de fiambres com as carnes branca e escura de frango
Graner, M.;
Scientia Agricola , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90161992000400023
Abstract: chiken loaves were prepared with light and dark meat from broiler and deboned breasts and legs. the meat was cut, cured, ground, smoked and pasteurized (until 71°c). the yield was greater for the loaf prepared with light meat, which was also ranked first in sensory analysis. the light and the dark meat loaves had the following chemical compositions: moisture 70.6 - 71.0%; protein 22.0 - 20.2%; moisture/protein ratio 3.2 - 3.5; fat 4.0 - 4.5%; sodium chloride 2.4 - 2.5%; sodium nitrite 51.5 - 69.0 ppm; ph 6.1 - 6.25, respectively.
Notas sobre florescimento e frutifica??o da mandioca
Graner, E. A.;
Bragantia , 1942, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051942000100001
Abstract: the flowering habits and the fructification of cassava m. utilissima pohl were described. attention was called to the small production of flowers per plant and to the attack of male flowers by the fly teleocoma crassipes aldrich and of the fruit by the fly anastrepha pickeli c. lima. the difficulties of controlled pollination were emphasized and a practical method of obtaining f2 seeds were discussed.
Genética de manihot: I. hereditariedade da forma da folha e da colora??o da película externa das raizes em Manihot Utilissima pohl
Graner, E. A.;
Bragantia , 1942, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051942000100002
Abstract: the inheritance of two characters in manihot utilissima pohl were studied. it was found that the leaves with narrow lobes v (fig. 1) are dominant over leaves with large lobes v (fig. 2) and that the brown coloration of the roots m (fig. 5) is dominant over white m (fig. 6). these two characters segregate independently, according to the dates recorded in tables iii and iv. the phenotypic expression of the form of the leaves is largely dependent from the environment, the leaves with narrow lobes being replaced by leaves with large lobes in plants transported to a shady place under big trees. (figs. 3 and 4). thus reduction of light causes a change of dominance.
Tratamento de mandioca pela colchicina: II. formas poliplóides obtidas
Graner, E. A.;
Bragantia , 1942, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051942000200001
Abstract: the methods used in obtaining polyploid cassava (manihot utilissima pohl) by colchicine treatment were described in detail. two solutions of colchicine were tried, one at 0.5% and other at 1.0%, both giving identical results in producing many altered plants. the chromosome number of the altered plants was determined and [a correlation between chromosome duplication and increase of the major diameter of stomata was found. size of stomata in cassava serves to identify poliploids individuals if the plant produced by treatment is not a chimera, a very frequent event in producing polyploid cassava by colchicine. it was emphasized that the plants obtained by treatment were a type of chimera, with the aerial part polyploid and the subterranean base diploid. the development of polyploid individuals obtained from the polyploid aerial part of the treated was analyzed. a comparison between the tetraploid and the diploid control plants was made, the octoploid plant being too slow in development. there are many groups of polivalents in the first meiotic metaphase of the autopoly-ploid individuals obtained. by an analysis of the polen grains it was assumed that the diploid plant may be a structural hybrid. the production of the tetraploid plants was computed preliminarly, other detailed experiments involving spacing being necessary for estimating the commercial production,, since the diploid produces more branched plants than the tetraploid ones.
Two-dimensional flow of foam around a circular obstacle: local measurements of elasticity, plasticity and flow
Benjamin Dollet,Francois Graner
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1017/S0022112007006830
Abstract: We investigate the two-dimensional flow of a liquid foam around circular obstacles by measuring all the local fields necessary to describe this flow: velocity, pressure, bubble deformations and rearrangements. We show how our experimental setup, a quasi-2D "liquid pool" system, is adapted to the determination of these fields: the velocity and bubble deformations are easy to measure from 2D movies, and the pressure can be measured by exploiting a specific feature of this system, a 2D effective compressibility. To describe accurately bubble rearrangements, we propose a new, tensorial descriptor. All these quantities are evaluated via an averaging procedure that we justify showing that the fluctuations of the fields are essentially random. The flow is extensively studied in a reference experimental case; the velocity presents an overshoot in the wake of the obstacle, the pressure is maximum at the leading side and minimal at the trailing side. The study of the elastic deformations and of the velocity gradients shows that the transition between plug flow and yielded regions is smooth. Our tensorial description of T1s highlight their correlation both with the bubble deformations and the velocity gradients. A salient feature of the flow, notably on the velocity and T1 repartition, is a marked asymmetry upstream/downstream, signature of the elastic behaviour of the foam. We show that the results do not change qualitatively when various control parameters vary, identifying a robust quasistatic regime. These results are discussed in the frame of the actual foam rheology literature, and we argue that they constitute a severe test for existing rheological models, since they capture both the elastic, plastic and fluid behaviour of the foam.
Regular three-dimensional bubble clusters: shape, packing and growth-rate
Simon Cox,Francois Graner
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.69.031409
Abstract: We consider three-dimensional clusters of identical bubbles packed around a central bubble and calculate their energy and optimal shape. We obtain the surface area and bubble pressures to improve on existing growth laws for three-dimensional bubble clusters. We discuss the possible number of bubbles that can be packed around a central one: the ``kissing problem'', here adapted to deformable objects.
Foam in a two-dimensional Couette shear: a local measurement of bubble deformation
Eric Janiaud,Francois Graner
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We re-analyse experiments on a foam sheared in a two-dimensional Couette geometry [Debregeas et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 178305 (2001)]. We characterise the bubble deformation by a texture tensor. Our measurements are local in time: they show two regimes, one transient and one stationary. They provide both the average and fluctuations of the anisotropy. Measurements are also local in space: they show that both the deformation and the elastic contribution to the stress field do not localise, varying smoothly across the shear gap. We can thus describe the foam as a continuous medium with elastic properties.
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