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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402166 matches for " Grace M Callagy "
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Meta-analysis confirms BCL2 is an independent prognostic marker in breast cancer
Grace M Callagy, Mark J Webber, Paul DP Pharoah, Carlos Caldas
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-153
Abstract: Reports published in 1994–2006 were selected for the meta-analysis using a search of PubMed. Studies that investigated the role of BCL2 expression by immunohistochemistry with a sample size greater than 100 were included. Seventeen papers reported the results of 18 different series including 5,892 cases with an average median follow-up of 92.1 months.Eight studies investigated DFS unadjusted for other variables in 2,285 cases. The relative hazard estimates ranged from 0.85 – 3.03 with a combined random effects estimate of 1.66 (95%CI 1.25 – 2.22). The effect of BCL2 on DFS adjusted for other prognostic factors was reported in 11 studies and the pooled random effects hazard ratio estimate was 1.58 (95%CI 1.29–1.94). OS was investigated unadjusted for other variables in eight studies incorporating 3,910 cases. The hazard estimates ranged from 0.99–4.31 with a pooled estimate of risk of 1.64 (95%CI 1.36–2.0). OS adjusted for other parameters was evaluated in nine series comprising 3,624 cases and the estimates for these studies ranged from 1.10 to 2.49 with a pooled estimate of 1.37 (95%CI 1.19–1.58).The meta-analysis strongly supports the prognostic role of BCL2 as assessed by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer and shows that this effect is independent of lymph node status, tumour size and tumour grade as well as a range of other biological variables on multi-variate analysis. Large prospective studies are now needed to establish the clinical utility of BCL2 as an independent prognostic marker.Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease whose behaviour is determined by the molecular characteristics of the tumour. In clinical practice, we rely on clinico-pathological features to predict tumour behaviour and patient outcome. These are powerful independent prognosticators [1,2] but are imperfect and represent only crude measures of the biological behaviour of a tumour. The power of these factors can be increased when they are used in combination e.g. the Nottingham Progno
Malignant Phyllodes Tumour with Liposarcomatous Differentiation, Invasive Tubular Carcinoma, and Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Mardiana Abdul Aziz,Frank Sullivan,Michael J. Kerin,Grace Callagy
Pathology Research International , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/501274
Abstract: A 43-year-old woman presented with a right breast lump that had enlarged over 5 months. She had chemoradiotherapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in 1989. Histology revealed a malignant phyllodes tumour (PT) with liposarcomatous differentiation and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the tumour with invasive tubular carcinoma, DCIS, and lobular carcinoma in situ in the surrounding breast. She had surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. One year follow-up showed no recurrence or metastatic disease. Liposarcomatous differentiation is uncommon in PTs, and coexisting carcinoma is rare with 38 cases in 31 reports in the literature. Carcinoma is reported in malignant ( ), benign ( ) and in borderline PTs ( ) with invasive carcinoma ( ) and pure in situ carcinoma ( ) recorded in equal frequency. Carcinoma is more commonly found within the confines of benign PTs; whereas it is more often found surrounding the PT or in the contralateral breast in malignant PTs. Previous radiotherapy treatment is reported in only two cases. The aetiology of co-existing carcinoma is unclear but the rarity of previous radiotherapy treatment suggests that it is incidental. This case highlights the diverse pathology that can occur with PTs, which should be considered when evaluating pathology specimens as they may impact on patient management. 1. Introduction Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms that account for <1% of all breast tumours. Most PTs are benign and carry a risk of local recurrence whereas malignant PTs have a 13% risk of haematogenous metastasis [1].The distinction between benign, borderline and malignant PT is based on the assessment of a number of histological features including infiltrative margin, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, cellularity, and mitotic activity.However,while histological features are helpful, they are not accurate predictors of tumour behavior, and no single parameter is reliable in all cases [2]. PTs are believed to arise from intralobular or periductal stroma and may arise de novo or from pre-existing fibroadenomas [2]. Up to 30% of PTs show malignant transformation, most often in the form of malignant transformation of the stroma, which usually shows fibrosarcomatous differentiation and rarely heterologous sarcomatous elements. Malignant transformation of epithelial elements is very rare with only 38 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a malignant PT that contained heterologous liposarcomatous stromal differentiation and exhibited a range of epithelial pathology. Ductal carcinoma in
Prognostic Significance of Deregulated Dicer Expression in Breast Cancer
Emer Caffrey, Helen Ingoldsby, Deirdre Wall, Mark Webber, Kate Dinneen, Laura S. Murillo, Celine Inderhaug, John Newell, Sanjeev Gupta, Grace Callagy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083724
Abstract: Background Dicer, an RNase III-type endonuclease, is the key enzyme involved in RNA interference and microRNA pathways. Aberrant expression of Dicer is reported in several human cancers. Our aim was to assess the prognostic role of Dicer in breast cancer. Methods The entire series comprised 666 invasive breast cancers (IBCs), 480 DCIS cases (397 associated with IBC and 83 pure DCIS) and 305 lymph node metastases. Cytoplasmic Dicer expression by immunohistochemistry was scored as negative (no staining) and positive (weak, moderate or strong staining). Results Dicer staining was assessable in 446 IBC, 128 DCIS and 101 lymph node metastases. Expression of Dicer was observed in 33% (145/446) of IBCs, 34% (44/128) of DCIS and 57% (58/101) of lymph node metastases. Dicer expression was increased in nodal metastases compared to primary tumours (p<0.001); and was associated with ER negativity (p<0.001), HER2 positivity (p<0.001), high Ki67 labeling index (p<0.001) and expression of basal-like biomarkers (p = 0.002). Dicer positivity was more frequent in the HER2 overexpressing (p<0.001) and basal-like (p = 0.002) subtypes compared to luminal A subtype. Dicer expression was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) on univariate analysis (p = 0.058) and remained an independent predictor of OS on multivariate analysis (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.43–5.62, p = 0.003), with nodal status (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.18–5.80, p = 0.018) and PR (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13–0.59, p = 0.001). Further, moderate or strong expression of Dicer was associated with improved disease-free survival in the HER2-overexpressing subtype compared to negative or weak expression (p = 0.038). Conclusion Deregulated Dicer expression is associated with aggressive tumour characteristics and is an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our findings suggest that Dicer is an important prognostic marker in breast cancer and that its prognostic role may be subtype specific.
Child feeding practices in a rural Western Kenya community
Grace M. Mbagaya
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.15
Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding is nearly universal in Kenya. However, supplementation of breast milk starts too early, thereby exposing the infants to diarrhoea and other infections. Despite the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) of exclusive breastfeeding (EB) from birth to six months, EB is rare and poorly timed and complementary feeding (CF) practices are still common. The study describes feeding practices of children aged 0 to 24 months in the Mumias Division of the Kakamega district in Kenya. Method: Using a cross-sectional study, 180 mothers of infants/children were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, feeding practices and sources of information on the same were obtained from the mothers. Results: Whereas 92.1% of the children were breastfed, only 12.2% of the mothers practiced EB up to 4 to 6 months. Mothers introduced liquids and complementary foods at a mean age of 2.7 months and by the fourth month, more than one-third (34.5%) of the mothers had initiated CF. Apart from water, fresh milk, tea, commercial juices, maize-meal/millet porridge, mashed potatoes, bananas and fruits were also introduced. The perceived reasons for introducing these foods included the child being old enough (33.8%), another pregnancy (25%), insufficient milk (20.3%), sickness of the mother or child (10.5%) and in order for the child to eat other foods (11.4%). Over half (53.3%) of the mothers obtained information on BF and CF from friends, neighbours, media advertisements and health workers. Conclusion: Breastfeeding is common; however, mothers do not seem to practice the WHO recommendations. Mothers in this study area and other rural communities need to be empowered with information on the correct BF and CF practices through existing government health services, nongovernmental organisations and other community-based networks, especially in the light of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.How to cite this article: Mbagaya G. Child Feeding Practices in a Rural Western Kenya Community. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2009;1(1), Art. #15, 4 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.15
Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential of Some Indigenous Functional Food-Plants Used in the O.R. Tambo District Municipality of South Africa  [PDF]
Collise Njume, Bomkazi M. Gqaza, Grace George, Nomalungelo I. Goduka
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2014.26006

Antimicrobial resistance is a major problem in the management of infectious diseases. African indigenous functional food-plants such as Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum may constitute important sources of phytochemical constituents for the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds against infectious organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial pro- perties of Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum-leaves used as functional food-plants in the O.R. Tambo district municipality of South Africa. Organic and aqueous solvent-extracts of C. album and S. nigrum were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC127853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), Escherichia coli (25922) and Enterococcus faecalis (51299) using standard microbiological techniques. Ciprofloxacin was included in all the experimental runs as positive control antibiotic. The aqueous extracts of both plants were the most active with zones of inhibition diameters ranging from 0 mm - 20 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.63 mg/mL - 10 mg/mL. The positive control antibiotic was highly active with zones of inhibition diameters ranging from 17 mm - 31 mm and MIC50 values from 0.0003 mg/mL - 0.0005mg/mL for all the bacteria tested. Both extracts were bactericidal with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges from 2.5mg/mL - 20mg/mL. From the results, it can be concluded that both plants possess compounds with antimicrobial properties, thus validating scientifically their use in traditional medicine. However, more studies to document the respective plant-principles responsible for antimicrobial activity of these plants would shed more light on their functional properties.

Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008
Natalia Zienczuk,Grace M. Egeland
International Journal of Circumpolar Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.18419
Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001). Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.
Up Against The Wall: The Effects of Climate Warming on Soil Microbial Diversity and The Potential for Feedbacks to The Carbon Cycle
Grace Pold,Kristen M. DeAngelis
Diversity , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/d5020409
Abstract: Earth’s climate is warming, and there is evidence that increased temperature alters soil C cycling, which may result in a self-reinforcing (positive), microbial mediated feedback to the climate system. Though soil microbes are major drivers of soil C cycling, we lack an understanding of how temperature affects SOM decomposition. Numerous studies have explored, to differing degrees, the extent to which climate change may affect biodiversity. While there is ample evidence that community diversity begets ecosystem stability and resilience, we know of keystone species that perform functions whose effects far outweigh their relative abundance. In this paper, we first review the meaning of microbial diversity and how it relates to ecosystem function, then conduct a literature review of field-based climate warming studies that have made some measure of microbial diversity. Finally, we explore how measures of diversity may yield a larger, more complete picture of climate warming effects on microbial communities, and how this may translate to altered carbon cycling and greenhouse gas emissions. While warming effects seem to be ecosystem-specific, the lack of observable consistency between measures is due in some part to the diversity in measures of microbial diversity.
Socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease risk factors and mortality
Grace M. Egeland m.fl
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2011,
Abstract: -
Enhancing Life Safety Provisions in Fire Zones of Buildings
Lilly grace murali P.,,M. M. Vijayalakshmi
International Journal of Engineering Research , 2014,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Fire accident in building is a threatening one now a day. These accidents create heavy lives and property losses. To find the reasons, frequency and giving protection to all type of buildings became challenges to the professionals. Fire causes different types of losses but in this paper the lives losses and its passive remedy given importance. The statistical data of twelve years from 2000 to 2012 lives losses has been taken as survey, it is analyzed and the results are discussed. This analysis results directs two case studies which are took placed in Tamil Nadu and considered as major lives losses fire accidents. These case studies concluded with solutions. Fire and lives safety aspects in term of escapes routes design recommendations are given here to improve the lives safety in buildings for future.
Who Voted for Trump in 2016?  [PDF]
Alexandra C. Cook, Nathan J. Hill, Mary I. Trichka, Grace J. Hwang, Paul M. Sommers
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.57013
Abstract: The authors use simple bilinear regression on statewide exit poll data to gauge the popularity of President Donald Trump in the 2016 election among voters in four levels of educational attainment (high school, some college, college, and postgraduate); three income groups (less than $50,000, $50,000 - $100,000, and more than $100,000); four age groups (18 - 29, 30 - 44, 45 - 64, and 65+); and two racial groups (white and non-white). Trump was found to be most popular among voters with a high school education, voters with annual incomes greater than $100,000, voters 65 years of age or older and white voters. Trump was found to be least popular among voters with a postgraduate degree, voters with annual incomes less than $50,000, voters under 30 years of age and non-white voters.
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