oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 792 )

2018 ( 1440 )

2017 ( 1427 )

2016 ( 2022 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 838490 matches for " Gra?a M. R. Oliveira "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /838490
Display every page Item
Variations in gastric emptying of liquid elicited by acute blood volume changes in awake rats
Gondim F. de-A.A.,Oliveira G.R. de-,Graa J.R.V.,Cavalcante D.I.M.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998,
Abstract: We have observed that acute blood volume expansion increases the gastroduodenal resistance to the flow of liquid in anesthetized dogs, while retraction decreases it (Santos et al. (1991) Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 143: 261-269). This study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion and retraction on the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats using a modification of the technique of Scarpignato (1980) (Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 246: 286-294). Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were fasted for 16 h with water ad libitum and 1.5 ml of the test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red solution in 5% glucose) was delivered to the stomach immediately after random submission to one of the following protocols: 1) normovolemic control (N = 22), 2) expansion (N = 72) by intravenous infusion (1 ml/min) of Ringer-bicarbonate solution, volumes of 1, 2, 3 or 5% body weight, or 3) retraction (N = 22) by controlled bleeding (1.5 ml/100 g). Gastric emptying of liquid was inhibited by 19-51.2% (P<0.05) after blood volume expansion (volumes of 1, 2, 3 or 5% body weight). Blood volume expansion produced a sustained increase in central venous pressure while mean arterial pressure was transiently increased during expansion (P<0.05). Blood volume retraction increased gastric emptying by 28.5-49.9% (P<0.05) and decreased central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure (P<0.05). Infusion of the shed blood 10 min after bleeding reversed the effect of retraction on gastric emptying. These findings suggest that gastric emptying of liquid is subject to modulation by the blood volume.
Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats
Gondim, F. de-A.A.;da-Graa, J.R.V.;de-Oliveira, G.R.;Rêgo, M.C.V.;Gondim, R.B.M.;Rola, F.H.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998001200015
Abstract: we studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (sct) on gastric emptying (ge) and on gastrointestinal (gi) and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. male wistar rats (n = 65) weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete sct was performed between c7 and t1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. ge and gi and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. a test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution) was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml) and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate ge and gi transit. for intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. ge was inhibited (p<0.05) by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after sct. gi transit was inhibited (p<0.05) by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after sct. intestinal transit was also inhibited (p<0.05) by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after sct. mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (p<0.05) by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after sct. in summary, our report describes a decreased ge and gi and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high sct.
Variations in gastric emptying of liquid elicited by acute blood volume changes in awake rats
Gondim, F. de-A.A.;Oliveira, G.R. de-;Graa, J.R.V.;Cavalcante, D.I.M.;Souza, M.A.N.;Santos, A.A.;Rola, F.H.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000700013
Abstract: we have observed that acute blood volume expansion increases the gastroduodenal resistance to the flow of liquid in anesthetized dogs, while retraction decreases it (santos et al. (1991) acta physiologica scandinavica, 143: 261-269). this study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion and retraction on the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats using a modification of the technique of scarpignato (1980) (archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de therapie, 246: 286-294). male wistar rats (180-200 g) were fasted for 16 h with water ad libitum and 1.5 ml of the test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red solution in 5% glucose) was delivered to the stomach immediately after random submission to one of the following protocols: 1) normovolemic control (n = 22), 2) expansion (n = 72) by intravenous infusion (1 ml/min) of ringer-bicarbonate solution, volumes of 1, 2, 3 or 5% body weight, or 3) retraction (n = 22) by controlled bleeding (1.5 ml/100 g). gastric emptying of liquid was inhibited by 19-51.2% (p<0.05) after blood volume expansion (volumes of 1, 2, 3 or 5% body weight). blood volume expansion produced a sustained increase in central venous pressure while mean arterial pressure was transiently increased during expansion (p<0.05). blood volume retraction increased gastric emptying by 28.5-49.9% (p<0.05) and decreased central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure (p<0.05). infusion of the shed blood 10 min after bleeding reversed the effect of retraction on gastric emptying. these findings suggest that gastric emptying of liquid is subject to modulation by the blood volume.
Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil
Livia M. M. Pontes,Camila B. Martins,Isabel C. Napolitano,Juliana R. Fonseca,Graa M. R. Oliveira,Sandra M. K. Iso,Anny K. P. M. Menezes,Adriana D. B. Vizzotto,Elaine S. di Sarno,Hélio Elkis
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/321725
Abstract: Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition. 1. Introduction Impaired cognitive functioning in schizophrenia was early recognized [1, 2] and described as one of the core symptoms [3]. Deficits may be present since the first manifestations of the disease or may appear before the onset of symptoms [4]. Up to 80% of all people with schizophrenia may present significant deficits [5]. Main deficits involve attention, memory, and executive functions, but other domains can also be affected, such as visuospatial ability, language, learning, and motor coordination [3, 6, 7]. Cognitive deficits have been related to impairment in functional abilities [8–10], compromising the ability to lead an independent life, to benefit from psychosocial treatments, to create and maintain social relationships, to find and keep a job, and to maintain academic development [6, 11–13]. Improvements in cognitive functions can increase benefits from other psychosocial rehabilitation programmes [14]; therefore, treatment of schizophrenia could also include cognitive training. A large number of outpatient consultations and re-hospitalization rates [15], difficulty in maintaining a job [6], and
Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats
Gondim F. de-A.A.,da-Graa J.R.V.,de-Oliveira G.R.,Rêgo M.C.V.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998,
Abstract: We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT) on gastric emptying (GE) and on gastrointestinal (GI) and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65) weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution) was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml) and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05) by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05) by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05) by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05) by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.
Sildenafil delays the intestinal transit of a liquid meal in awake rats
Graa, J.R.V;Macedo, G.M;Palheta Jr, R.C;Gondim, F. de A.A;Nogueira, R.O;Correia, J.M;Rola, F.H;Oliveira, R.B;Souza, M.A.N;Santos, A.A;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2008,
Abstract: sildenafil slows down the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal in awake rats and inhibits the contractility of intestinal tissue strips. we studied the acute effects of sildenafil on in vivo intestinal transit in rats. fasted, male albino rats (180-220 g, n = 44) were treated (0.2 ml, iv) with sildenafil (4 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.01 n hcl). ten minutes later they were fed a liquid test meal (99mtechnetium-labeled saline) injected directly into the duodenum. twenty, 30 or 40 min after feeding, the rats were killed and transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by progression of the radiotracer using the geometric center method. the effect of sildenafil on mean arterial pressure (map) was monitored in a separate group of rats (n = 14). data (medians within interquartile ranges) were compared by the mann-whitney u-test. the location of the geometric center was significantly more distal in vehicle-treated than in sildenafil-treated rats at 20, 30, and 40 min after test meal instillation (3.3 (3.0-3.6) vs 2.9 (2.7-3.1); 3.8 (3.4-4.0) vs 2.9 (2.5-3.1), and 4.3 (3.9-4.5) vs 3.4 (3.2-3.7), respectively; p < 0.05). map was unchanged in vehicle-treated rats but decreased by 25% (p < 0.05) within 10 min after sildenafil injection. in conclusion, besides transiently decreasing map, sildenafil delays the intestinal transit of a liquid test meal in awake rats.
Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats
de-Oliveira, G.R.;Gondim, F. de-A.A.;da-Graa, J.R.V.;Xavier-Neto, J.;Dantas, R.P.;Gondim, R.B.M.;Santos, A.A.;Rola, F.H.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000600017
Abstract: the present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic) in awake male wistar rats (200-270 g). on the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (p<0.05), but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. the effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight) on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (p<0.05). mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (p<0.05). subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg) prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg), l-name (2 mg/kg), hexamethonium (10 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg) or propranolol (2 mg/kg) were ineffective. these data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. the delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.
Rasmussen Encephalitis: longterm outcome after surgery
Terra, Vera C.;Machado, Helio R.;Oliveira, Ricardo dos Santos;Serafini, Luciano N;Souza-Oliveira, Cecília;Escorsi-Rosset, Sara;Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas;Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graa;Scorza, Carla A;Cavalheiro, Esper A.;Scorza, Fulvio A;Sakamoto, Américo C.;
Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-26492010000200004
Abstract: background and purpose: rasmussen encephalitis (re) is characterized by intractable epilepsy, progressive hemiparesis and unilateral hemispheric atrophy. the progression of the symptoms usually occurs within months to few years. antiepileptic drugs are usually not effective to control disease progression and epilepsy surgery in the form of hemispheric disconnection has been considered the treatment of choice. this work describes the clinical and electrographic analyses, as well as the post-operative evolution of patients with re. patients and methods: this work includes all the patients with re evaluated from january 1995 to january 2008 by the ribeir?o preto epilepsy surgery program (cirep) considering demographic data, interictal and ictal electroencephalographic (eeg) findings; anatomo-pathological findings and clinical outcome. results: twenty-five patients were evaluated, thirteen were female. mean age of epilepsy onset was 4.4±2.0 years. there were no differences between patients with slow and fast evolution with respect to age of epilepsy onset (p=0.79), age at surgery (p=0.24), duration of epilepsy (0.06), and follow-up (p=0.40). there were no correlations between the presence of bilateral eeg abnormalities or the absence of spikes and post-operative seizure outcome (p=0.06). twenty-three patients underwent surgery. the mean follow-up was 75.3 months. eleven patients had total seizure control. twelve individuals persisted with seizures consisting of mild facial jerks (6 patients), occasional hemigeneralized tonic-clonic seizures (3 patients), and frequent tonic-clonic seizures (3 patients). mental and language impairment was observed in 15 and 12 patients, after surgery, respectively. conclusions: this retrospective study reported the clinical and electrographic analysis, as well as the evolution of 23 patients with re. fourteen patients achieved satisfactory seizure control, three patients had partial response to surgery, and five patients had maintenance o
Acute extracellular fluid volume changes increase ileocolonic resistance to saline flow in anesthetized dogs
Santiago Jr., A.T.;Gondim, F. de-A.A.;Cavalcante, D.I.M.;da-Graa, J.R.V.;de-Oliveira, G.R.;dos-Santos, A.A.;Rola, F.H.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1997000800014
Abstract: we determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon), perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% nacl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight) and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure). mean ileocolonic flow (n = 6) was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, p<0.05) and expanded (44.9%, p<0.05) periods while mean ileal flow (n = 7) was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, p<0.05). mean colonic flow (n = 7) was decreased during expansion (12%, p<0.05) but returned to control levels during the expanded period. mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (n = 6) was not significantly modified. mean ileocolonic flow (n = 10) was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period) by 17% (p<0.05), but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (n = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively). the expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv) both on the ileocolonic (n = 6) and ileal (n = 5) circuits. acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. these effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.
Reten??o do fósforo de fenos de gramíneas tropicais em ovinos
Reis, R.A.;Graa, D.S.;Maurício, R.M.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09351999000300014
Abstract: one experiment was conducted using five adult sheep fed on four tropical grass hays to determine phosphorus (p) retention. the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days (14 days adaptation and seven days faeces collection). the treatments were: a) molasses grass (melinis minutiflora), b) brachiaria grass (brachiaria decumbens), c) coastcross grass (cynodon dactilon) and d) guinea grass (panicum maximum). phosphorus concentrations were 0.05%, 0.07%, 0.11% and 0.18% for treatments a, b, c and d, respectively. the effects of treatment, period and animal were evaluated by ortogonal polynomials and the contrasts by f test. negative p balances were produced in treatments a, b and c (-13.05, -9.36 and -8.26mg/kg lw/day, respectively) which were not significantly different from each other. positive p balance of 8.14mg/kg lw/day was produced in treatment d, which was significantly higher (p<0.05) than treatments a, b and c. endogenous losses of 15.5mg p/kg lw/day were estimated using regression analysis. the average p retention coefficient of the hays was 0.37. a relationship between p intake and p balance showed that an intake of approximately 44mg p/kg lw/day was necessary to produce a zero p balance.
Page 1 /838490
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.