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Comparison of Amino Acid Content in Canned Pleurotus Ostreatus and Agaricus Bisporus Mushrooms
Gra yna Jaworska, Emilia Berna
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10032-011-0009-3
Abstract: The work compares the levels of amino acids in canned Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Compared with A. bisporus, P. ostreatus contained significantly lower levels of ash, total nitrogen and protein nitrogen (by 17-40%), but 12% more total carbohydrates. Protein nitrogen constituted 87% of the total nitrogen in A. bisporus and 72% in P. ostreatus. The conversion factor from total nitrogen to protein was 3.45 in A. bisporus, 15% lower than in P. ostreatus. In both species, glutamine was the most abundant endogenous amino acid while leucine was the most abundant exogenous amino acid. The least abundant endogenous and exogenous amino acids were respectively glycine, and methionine and cysteine. When the results were expressed in terms of per 100 g of fresh matter, P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of arginine, tyrosine and valine than A. bisporus (by 14-21%), but lower levels of alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, cysteine and histidine (by 5-38%). In terms of per 100 g of protein, P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of alanine, arginine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine and valine (by 9-40%) than A. bisporus, but lower levels of asparagine, glutamine, proline and cysteine (by 5-37%). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein patterns, no limiting amino acids were found in either species. The EAA (Essential Amino Acid) index values for canned P. ostreatus were 11% higher than for canned A. bisporus.
Comparison of amino acid content in frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms
Emilia Berna?,Grayna Jaworska
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2010,
Abstract: Background. The present work compares the content of basic chemical constituents as well as amino acids in frozen Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. and Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. mushrooms. Material and methods. The material investigated comprised of frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms after 8 months’ storage, having been soaked and blanched in a solution 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% lactic acid and 0.1% L-ascorbic acid prior to freezing. Results. Compared with frozen A. bisporus, frozen P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of total carbohydrates (32% higher), raw fat (38%) and most endogenous (6-163%) and exogenous (10-200%) amino acids, but lower levels of ash (45% lower), total nitrogen (50%) and protein nitrogen (40%). In both species, asparagine and glutamine were the most abundant endogenous amino acids (respectively 10-12% and 12-19% of total amino acids), and leucine and lysine the most abundant exogenous amino acids (7-9% and 6-7%). The least abundant were glycine and proline (both 5%), and cysteine and methionine (1% and 2%). Conclusions. Frozen mushrooms of both species are potentially good sources of protein in the diet as no limiting amino acids were found when compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein pattern. However, it is important to determine the digestibility of protein in the mushrooms model studies using animals and people. The conversion coefficient from total nitrogen to protein was 5.23 in P. ostreatus and 2.46 in A. bisporus.
Inwazyjne grzybicze zapalenie zatok u dzieci z upo ledzon odporno ci
Marzena Jaworska,Krzysztof Szmyd,Krzysztof Pre?,Grayna Wróbel
Medical Mycology , 2006,
Abstract: Inwazyjne grzybicze zapalenie zatok (IZZ) jest schorzeniem wyst puj cym u pacjentów z upo ledzon funkcj uk adu immunologicznego. Ze wzgl du na szybki post p oraz sk poobjawowy przebieg choroby stanowi miertelne zagro enie dla chorych. Podstawowym czynnikiem etiologicznym grzybiczej postaci IZZ jest Aspergillus spp. W latach 2002-2005 w Klinice Transplantacji Szpiku, Onkologii i Hematologii Dzieci cej oraz Klinice Otolaryngologii AM we Wroc awiu leczono z powodu inwazyjnego zapalenia zatok (IZZ) wywo anego przez Aspergillus spp. trzech ch opców w wieku 2,5-18 lat. U dwóch pacjentów chorob podstawow by a ci ka posta anemii aplastycznej, a u jednego - nawrót ostrej bia aczki limfoblastycznej. U wszystkich chorych wspó istnia y liczne czynniki ryzyka rozwoju grzybicy. Do leczenia w czono intensywne post powanie farmakologiczne, jak równie przeprowadzono leczenie operacyjne (w 2 wypadkach operacje by y powtarzane). U jednego chorego uzyskano okresow popraw , w okresie cz ciowej rekonstytucji hematologicznej po przeszczepie szpiku kostnego - pacjent ten zmar wskutek odrzucenia przeszczepu oraz posocznicy bakteryjnej. Pozostali pacjenci zmarli w przebiegu post puj cej grzybicy zatok. IZZ o etiologii grzybiczej jest schorzeniem o bardzo ci kim przebiegu klinicznym. Jedynie intensywne post powanie farmakologiczne oraz chirurgiczne stwarza szans na wyleczenie.
Influence of the Culinary Treatment on the Quality of Lactarius deliciosus
Krystyna Pogoń,Grayna Jaworska,Aleksandra Duda-Chodak,Ireneusz Maciejaszek
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2020238
Abstract: The influence of culinary treatment on the nutritional value and quality of Lactarius deliciosus was established. Mushrooms: unblanched (I), blanched (II), and unblanched with onion and spices (III), were fried in oil for 10 min. Fried mushrooms were assessed before storage as well as after 48 h in storage at 20 °C, and after 48 and 96 h in storage at 4 °C. Frying increased the dry weight, protein, fat, ash, total carbohydrate, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, as well as the caloric value of the mushrooms. In addition, frying decreased the antioxidant activity, color parameters ( a*, h*), and texture. The most significant changes due to culinary treatment and storage were observed in type II product. Microbiological analysis of the samples after a 48 h storage period at 20 °C revealed the total viable count over 10 6 and contamination with lactic acid bacteria. Fried mushrooms stored at 4 °C for 96 h were free from microorganisms.
Fertility Patterns and Reproductive Behaviours in the Lutheran and Catholic Populations from Historical Poland  [PDF]
Grayna Liczbińska
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2013.33020

Many variables of biological, ecological and cultural nature affect the biological dynamics of human populations. A religious denomination was an element of the cultural system which had an impact on the attitude towards birth control and sexuality. The aim of this paper is to show how religion shaped the fertility figures in the Catholic and Lutheran populations of historical Poland. Two methods were used to characterize fertility. One uses reconstructed individual histories of families to assess fertility figures on the basis of the length of protogenetic and intergenetic intervals. In the second method fertility measures were estimated from mortality and natural increase data. Using life-table parameters estimated for both stationary and stable population models the following fertility figures were calculated: crude birth rate, net reproductive rate R0, mean family size, mean birth interval, total fertility rate, and mean age-specific fertility rate. It has been found that the analyzed Catholic and Protestant populations from the territory of historicalPolandwere characterized by a rather high reproductive potential.

Gender-Based Violence and Christianity: Catholic Prevention of Divorce Traps Women in an Abusive Marriage  [PDF]
John Simister, Grayna Kowalewska
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.713155
Abstract: This paper reports evidence on Gender-Based Violence (GBV), violence against women by husband or male partner, based on household surveys from many countries. A woman’s risk of experiencing domestic violence varies, within a country and between countries, for many reasons. This paper focuses on religion: in particular, comparing Catholics with Protestants. It reports evidence that Catholic women have a higher risk of GBV than Protestant women. A possible explanation for this higher risk is investigated: the ban on divorce by the Catholic Church. Household surveys confirm that Catholics are less likely than Protestants to divorce. Divorce is a possible escape-route for a woman abused by her husband; preventing divorce keeps many women trapped in marriage to a violent husband
Addressing Sustainability Risks of Bioenergy—Policy Strategies and Corporate Initiatives  [PDF]
Michael Krug, Grayna Rabczuk, Adam Cenian
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.75022
Abstract: This paper focuses on the sustainable use of solid and gaseous biomass for electricity, heating and cooling. It provides updated findings of policy analyses and corporate strategy analyses performed in the frame of BIOENERGY PROMOTION, one of the flagship projects under the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. In particular, the paper highlights policies and measures which have been adopted by the EU and EU Member States to address environmental and social sustainability risks of bioenergy. Taking into account the conclusions of BIOENERGY PROMOTION, the paper identifies promising policy developments, but also shortcomings. On the Member State level, the paper refers to the examples of Germany and Poland. It illustrates how problematic policy priorities and policy malfunctioning in two sub-sectors (biogas from energy crops in Germany, biomass co-firing in Poland) led to undesirable environmental and social developments and how policies have been re-adjusted to mitigate sustainability risks. The paper also portrays a number of voluntary corporate sustainability initiatives which emerged due to the lack of a binding European sustainability framework for solid and gaseous biomass. The authors conclude that without a binding sustainability framework at EU level there is a risk of having a patchwork of potentially diverging sustainability regimes and initiatives across Europe causing market intransparency and insecurity for investors.
Psychological models of female teachers'functioning in their professional role
Gra yna Poraj
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-010-0007-6
Abstract: Objectives: The research was aimed at searching for diversified models of female teachers' functioning that could be determined by their individual traits, psychological variables, and professional adaptation factors. Material and Methods: Three hundred eleven female teachers aged from 26 to 60 were examined. The following tools were used in the research: The Hope Scale, NEO-FFI Inventory, IPSA Inventory, Work Description Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results: Models of psychological functioning of female teachers were distinguished by means of cluster analysis. The classification was based upon similarities and differences in the obtained results. Three groups of female teachers characterised by distinct traits were identified and named according to the research results: ‘passive teachers’, ‘frustrated teachers’, and ‘adapted teachers’. The first group (93 persons) included women who were not distinctive in any way. The second group (74 persons) comprised women characterised by very unfavourable traits. The third group consisted of women with favourable characteristics, women who are full of energy and enthusiasm for work, those who are satisfied with their job. Conclusions: Psychological models of female teachers' functioning are determined by their individual psychological traits. These traits constitute their important personal resources that influence their professional adaptation and the levels of job and life satisfaction.
Polish Bibliography of Occupational Medicine, 2005
Gra yna Kowalczyk
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-007-0006-4
Polish bibliography of occupational medicine, 2008
Gra yna Kowalczyk
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-009-0003-x
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