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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 411809 matches for " Gr?nholdt Marie-Louise M "
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Adipose tissue arachidonic acid content is associated with the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in atherosclerotic plaques
Nielsen Michael S,Grnholdt Marie-Louise M,Vyberg Mogens,Overvad Kim
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-12-7
Abstract: Background The content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue is positively associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue has been reported to be negatively associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. Both arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid are substrates for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes and leukotrienes derived from eicosapentaenoic acid are generally much less potent. In this study we hypothesized that a high content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue would reflect a high formation of arachidonic acid derived leukotrienes and a high expression of 5-lipoxygenase in atherosclerotic plaques. Likewise, we hypothesized that a high content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue would reflect a low formation of arachidonic acid derived leukotrienes and a low expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques. Methods In a cross sectional study we included 45 consecutive subjects undergoing femoral thrombendarterectomy. The expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques was assessed by a semi-automated image analysis computer programme after immunohistochemical staining with mono-clonal 5-lipoxygenase antibodies. Leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotriene formation from stimulated femoral artery plaques was quantified using ELISA methods. The fatty acid content of adipose tissue biopsies from the thigh was analyzed using gas chromatography. Associations between variables were assessed by Pearson correlations and were further explored in a multivariable linear regression model adjusting for potential confounders. Results A high content of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue was associated with a higher expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques (r = 0.32, p = 0.03), but no significant associations with leukotriene B4 (r = 0.22, p = 0.14) and cysteinyl leukotriene (r = 0.11, p = 0.46) formation was seen. No significant associations were found between the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in adipose tissue and 5-lipoxygenase expression or leukotriene formation in plaque. Conclusions Adipose tissue arachidonic acid contents correlated positively with the expression of 5-lipoxygenase in plaques. This association might represent a causal link between adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the risk of myocardial infarction but confirmatory studies are needed.
Impact of information letters on the reporting rate of adverse drug reactions and the quality of the reports: a randomized controlled study
Marie-Louise Johansson, Staffan H?gg, Susanna M Wallerstedt
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-11-14
Abstract: All 151 primary healthcare units in the Region V?stra G?taland, Sweden, were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention (n = 77) or a control group (n = 74). The intervention consisted of one-page ADR information letters administered at three occasions during 2008 to all physicians and nurses in the intervention units. The number of ADR reports received from the 151 units was registered, as was the quality of the reports, which was defined as high if the ADR was to be reported according to Swedish regulations, that is, if the ADR was (i) serious, (ii) unexpected, and/or (iii) related to the use of new drugs and not labelled as common in the Summary of Product Characteristics. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate if the ADR information letter had reached the intended recipient.Before the intervention, no significant differences in reporting rate or number of high quality reports could be detected between the randomization groups. In 2008, 79 reports were sent from 37 intervention units and 52 reports from 30 control units (mean number of reports per unit ± standard deviation: 1.0 ± 2.5 vs. 0.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.34). The number of high quality reports was higher in intervention units than in control units (37 vs. 15 reports, 0.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.048). According to the returned questionnaires (n = 1,292, response rate 57%), more persons in the intervention than in the control group had received (29% vs. 19%, P < 0.0001) and read (31% vs. 26%, P < 0.0001) an ADR information letter.This study suggests that repeated ADR information letters to physicians and nurses do not increase the ADR reporting rate, but may increase the number of high quality reports.Clinical trials contribute greatly to knowledge on drug safety. However, uncommon adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADRs in certain patient groups not included in clinical trials, e.g. children and older people with many concomitant diseases and medications, cannot be expected to be detected in these trials.
Reduced peripheral vascular reactivity in refractory angina pectoris: Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation
Susanne M Bondesson,Susanne M Bondesson,Marie-Louise Edvinsson,Thomas Pettersson
老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract: Aims To examine if the skin microvascular bed is altered and can be modified by enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in patients with chronic refractory angina. Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with refractory angina were divided into EECP (n = 10) or no EECP (n = 10) groups. The data were compared to matched healthy subjects (n = 20). The cutaneous forearm microvascular blood flow was measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry. The vascular responsiveness to iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and local skin warming were studied. Measurements of Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS)-class, blood pressure and plasma samples were registered. Results EECP patients showed reduced CCS-class compared to no EECP (P < 0.05). Both EECP and no EECP (P < 0.05) groups had decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) as compared to SBP at baseline (P < 0.05). There was no difference in resting blood flow between the two refractory groups at baseline as well as after EECP and seven weeks of follow-up. Responses to heating, the responses to ACh and SNP in the cutaneous microcirculation were lower in both groups of refractory angina patients as compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). EECP patients corresponded positively to the treatment shown by reduced plasma level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and CCS-class. Conclusions Refractory angina patients have reduced responsiveness in their cutaneous microcirculation to ACh, SNP and heat compared to healthy subjects. Although EECP reduced the CCS-class, this effect was not associated with improvements in responsiveness of the cutaneous microcirculation.
Need for Timely Paediatric HIV Treatment within Primary Health Care in Rural South Africa
Graham S. Cooke, Kirsty E. Little, Ruth M. Bland, Hilary Thulare, Marie-Louise Newell
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007101
Abstract: Background In areas where adult HIV prevalence has reached hyperendemic levels, many infants remain at risk of acquiring HIV infection. Timely access to care and treatment for HIV-infected infants and young children remains an important challenge. We explore the extent to which public sector roll-out has met the estimated need for paediatric treatment in a rural South African setting. Methods Local facility and population-based data were used to compare the number of HIV infected children accessing HAART before 2008, with estimates of those in need of treatment from a deterministic modeling approach. The impact of programmatic improvements on estimated numbers of children in need of treatment was assessed in sensitivity analyses. Findings In the primary health care programme of HIV treatment 346 children <16 years of age initiated HAART by 2008; 245(70.8%) were aged 10 years or younger, and only 2(<1%) under one year of age. Deterministic modeling predicted 2,561 HIV infected children aged 10 or younger to be alive within the area, of whom at least 521(20.3%) would have required immediate treatment. Were extended PMTCT uptake to reach 100% coverage, the annual number of infected infants could be reduced by 49.2%. Conclusion Despite progress in delivering decentralized HIV services to a rural sub-district in South Africa, substantial unmet need for treatment remains. In a local setting, very few children were initiated on treatment under 1 year of age and steps have now been taken to successfully improve early diagnosis and referral of infected infants.
A retrospective study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmission, mortality and loss to follow-up among infants in the first 18 months of life in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme in an urban hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Terusha Chetty, Stephen Knight, Janet Giddy, Tamaryn L Crankshaw, Lisa M Butler, Marie-Louise Newell
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-146
Abstract: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants born to women in the PMTCT programme at McCord Hospital, where mothers paid a fee for service. Data were abstracted from patient records for live-born infants delivered between 1 May 2008 and 31 May 2009. The infants’ LTFU status and age was based on the date of the last visit. HIV transmission was calculated as a proportion of infants followed and tested at six weeks. Mortality rates were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier (K-M), with censoring on 15 January 2010, LTFU or death.Of 260 infants, 155 (59.6%) remained in care at McCord beyond 28 weeks: one died at?<?28 days, three died between one to six months; 34 were LTFU within seven days, 60 were LTFU by six months. K-M mortality rate: 1.7% at six months (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6% to 4.3%). Of 220 (83%) infants tested for HIV at six weeks, six (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.1% to 5.8%) were HIV-infected. In Cox regression analysis, late antenatal attendance (≥ 28 weeks gestation) relative to attending in the first trimester was a predictor for infant LTFU (adjusted hazards ratio?=?2.3; 95% CI: 1.0 to 5.1; p?=?0.044).This urban PMTCT programme achieved low transmission rates at six weeks, but LTFU in the first six months limited our ability to examine HIV transmission up to 18 months and determinants of mortality. The LTFU of infants born to women who attended antenatal care at 28 weeks gestation or later emphasizes the need to identify late antenatal attendees for follow up care to educate and support them regarding the importance of follow up care for themselves and their infants.Globally, approximately 370 000 children were newly infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in 2009; the vast majority in sub-Saharan Africa [1], mostly due to mother-to-child transmission. In resource-constrained settings, with little or no antiretroviral treatment, approximately one-third of HIV-infected children die before one year and more than half die before two years of age [2]. In
Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia
Marie-Louise Lemloh, Jane Fromont, Franz Brümmer, Kayley M Usher
BMC Ecology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-9-4
Abstract: We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges.Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide range of sponges in a wide range of environmental conditions.Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are sessile aquatic metazoans that are found in all aquatic habitats and have important roles in marine ecological processes. Fossil records dating back to the Late Cambrian era 509 million years ago show that sponges have survived largely unchanged in their general structural organization [1]. So far about 7,000 extant species are described [2]. As filter feeders, sponges filter food particles from the water pumped through their body and bacteria are the main component of the sponge diet [3,4].Photosynthetic spong
Chronic inflammatory diseases are stimulated by current lifestyle: how diet, stress levels and medication prevent our body from recovering
Margarethe M Bosma-den Boer, Marie-Louise van Wetten, Leo Pruimboom
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-32
Abstract: The number of people suffering from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, respiratory diseases, mental disorders, autoimmune diseases (AID) and cancers has increased dramatically over the last three decades. The increasing rates of these chronic systemic illnesses suggest that inflammation [1,2], caused by excessive and inappropriate innate immune system (IIS) activity, is unable to respond appropriately to danger signals that are new in the context of evolution. This leads to unresolved or chronic inflammatory activation in the body.Inflammation is designed to limit invasions and damage after injury, a process which has been essential for the survival of Homo sapiens in the absence of medication such as antibiotics. Recently, it has been discovered that onset to conclusion of an inflammation is a self-limiting and controlled process of the immune system (IS). This process of inflammation resolution is defined by Serhan as Resoleomics [3], a term which will be used throughout this article.Our genes and physiology, which are still almost identical to those of our hunter-gatherer ancestors of 100,000 years ago, preserve core regulation and recovery processes [4,5]. Nowadays our genes operate in an environment which is completely different to the one for which they were designed.Modern man is exposed to an environment which has changed enormously since the time of the industrial revolution. In recent decades there has been a tremendous acceleration in innovations which have changed our lives completely. As a consequence, more than 75% of humans do not meet the minimum requirement of the estimated necessary daily physical activity [6], 72% of modern food types is new in human evolution [7], psycho-emotional stress has increased and man is exposed to an overwhelming amount of information on a daily basis. All these factors combine to produce an environment full of modern danger signals which continuously activate the IIS and central stress axe
Cross-national comparability of burden of disease estimates: the European Disability Weights Project
Essink-Bot,Marie-Louise; Pereira,Joaquin; Packer,Claire; Schwarzinger,Michael; Burstr?m,Kristina; ,;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000800009
Abstract: objective: to investigate the sources of cross-national variation in disability-adjusted life-years (dalys) in the european disability weights project. methods: disability weights for 15 disease stages were derived empirically in five countries by means of a standardized procedure and the cross-national differences in visual analogue scale (vas) scores were analysed. for each country the burden of dementia in women, used as an illustrative example, was estimated in dalys. an analysis was performed of the relative effects of cross-national variations in demography, epidemiology and disability weights on daly estimates. findings: cross-national comparison of vas scores showed almost identical ranking orders. after standardization for population size and age structure of the populations, the daly rates per 100000 women ranged from 1050 in france to 1404 in the netherlands. because of uncertainties in the epidemiological data, the extent to which these differences reflected true variation between countries was difficult to estimate. the use of european rather than country-specific disability weights did not lead to a significant change in the burden of disease estimates for dementia. conclusions: sound epidemiological data are the first requirement for burden of disease estimation and relevant between-countries comparisons. daly estimates for dementia were relatively insensitive to differences in disability weights between european countries.
Reduced peripheral vascular reactivity in refractory angina pectoris: Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation

Susanne M Bondesson,Marie-Louise Edvinsson,Thomas Pettersson,Lars Edvinsson,

老年心脏病学杂志(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To examine if the skin microvascular bed is altered and can be modified by enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in patients with chronic refractory angina. Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with refractory angina were divided into EECP (n = 10) or no EECP (n = 10) groups. The data were compared to matched healthy subjects (n = 20). The cutaneous forearm microvascular blood flow was measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry. The vascular responsiveness to iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and local skin warming were studied. Measurements of Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS)-class, blood pressure and plasma samples were registered. Results EECP patients showed reduced CCS-class compared to no EECP (P < 0.05). Both EECP and no EECP (P < 0.05) groups had decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) as compared to SBP at baseline (P < 0.05). There was no difference in resting blood flow between the two refractory groups at baseline as well as after EECP and seven weeks of follow-up. Responses to heating, the responses to ACh and SNP in the cutaneous microcirculation were lower in both groups of refractory angina patients as compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). EECP patients corresponded positively to the treatment shown by reduced plasma level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and CCS-class. Conclusions Refractory angina patients have reduced responsiveness in their cutaneous microcirculation to ACh, SNP and heat compared to healthy subjects. Although EECP reduced the CCS-class, this effect was not associated with improvements in responsiveness of the cutaneous microcirculation.
Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study
Hontelez Jan AC,Newell Marie-Louise,Bland Ruth M,Munnelly Kristen
Human Resources for Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-10-39
Abstract: Background Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access) remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availability of human resources may now be the most important barrier to achieving universal access to HIV treatment in Africa. We quantify the number of HIV health workers (HHWs) required to be added to the current HIV workforce to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in South Africa, under different eligibility criteria. Methods We performed a time and motion study in three HIV clinics in a rural, primary care-based HIV treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to estimate the average time per patient visit for doctors, nurses, and counselors. We estimated the additional number of HHWs needed to achieve universal access to HIV treatment within one year. Results For universal access to HIV treatment for all patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl, an additional 2,200 nurses, 3,800 counselors, and 300 doctors would be required, at additional annual salary cost of 929 million South African rand (ZAR), equivalent to US$ 141 million. For universal treatment (‘treatment as prevention’), an additional 6,000 nurses, 11,000 counselors, and 800 doctors would be required, at an additional annual salary cost of ZAR 2.6 billion (US$ 400 million). Conclusions Universal access to HIV treatment for patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl in South Africa may be affordable, but the number of HHWs available for HIV treatment will need to be substantially increased. Treatment as prevention strategies will require considerable additional financial and human resources commitments.
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