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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4111 matches for " Govind Shah "
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Dystocia in camelids: The causes and approaches of management  [PDF]
Govind Narayan Purohit
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.22013
Abstract: Dystocia in the camelids is rare, however the exceptionally long neck and the fetal extremities predispose to flexion of these as a common cause of dystocia. A prolonged (<2 hr) second stage of labor, bloody vaginal discharge or colic is the frequent sign of dystocia. The maternal causes of dystocia for camelids include uterine torsion, pelvic immaturity, uterine inertia and cervical dilation failure, whereas the fetal causes described are fetal malpostures and rarely fetal monsters like Schistosoma reflexus and Pero-somus elumbis or fetal dropsical conditions such as hydrocephalus. Dromedary camels must be restrained in a sternal recumbency for examination and vicious animals must be given xylazine (0.25 - 2.2 mg/Kg IM or IV). South American camelids may be restrained by using either xylazine or butarphanol (0.5 - 0.1 mg/Kg IM). Uterine torsion is much more common in llamas and alpacas whereas it is infrequent in the dromedary camel. The methods of dystocia correction by using mutations, fetotomy and cesarean section are described.
RNAi, DRD1, and Histone Methylation Actively Target Developmentally Important Non-CG DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis
Simon W.-L Chan,Ian R Henderson,Xiaoyu Zhang,Govind Shah,Jason S.-C Chien,Steven E Jacobsen
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020083
Abstract: Cytosine DNA methylation protects eukaryotic genomes by silencing transposons and harmful DNAs, but also regulates gene expression during normal development. Loss of CG methylation in the Arabidopsis thaliana met1 and ddm1 mutants causes varied and stochastic developmental defects that are often inherited independently of the original met1 or ddm1 mutation. Loss of non-CG methylation in plants with combined mutations in the DRM and CMT3 genes also causes a suite of developmental defects. We show here that the pleiotropic developmental defects of drm1 drm2 cmt3 triple mutant plants are fully recessive, and unlike phenotypes caused by met1 and ddm1, are not inherited independently of the drm and cmt3 mutations. Developmental phenotypes are also reversed when drm1 drm2 cmt3 plants are transformed with DRM2 or CMT3, implying that non-CG DNA methylation is efficiently re-established by sequence-specific signals. We provide evidence that these signals include RNA silencing though the 24-nucleotide short interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway as well as histone H3K9 methylation, both of which converge on the putative chromatin-remodeling protein DRD1. These signals act in at least three partially intersecting pathways that control the locus-specific patterning of non-CG methylation by the DRM2 and CMT3 methyltransferases. Our results suggest that non-CG DNA methylation that is inherited via a network of persistent targeting signals has been co-opted to regulate developmentally important genes.
Influence of C-Axis Inter Unit Cell Resonant Tunneling on the Spectral Function in Bilayer Cuprates  [PDF]
Ajay -, B. S. Tewari, Govind -
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.27088
Abstract: The role of intra unit cell coupling along with inter unit cell resonant tunneling between the copper-oxygen planes on the electronic spectral function in normal state of bilayer high Tc cuprates like Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x is investigated. The Hubbard model including terms representing hopping between the planes within the unit cell, and resonant tunneling between the planes in two adjoining cells is used along with the Green’s function equation of motion approach to obtain an expression of spectral function. The spectral function at (π,0) point of the Brillouin zone is numerically calculated. It is found that the intra unit cell coupling lead to splitting of spectral peak especially close to (π,0) point, while the inter unit cell resonant tunneling lead to a broadening in the spectral function and suppression of bilayer splitting in the normal state. In the presence of finite electron correlations the inter unit cell tunneling induce strong broadening in the spectral features. The electron correlations and inter unit cell tunneling is important in determining the shape of the spectral function in doped bilayer cuprates. These results are viewed in terms of the existing ARPES measurements on bilayer cuprates.
A REVIEW OF FISH MODEL IN EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY
Pandey Govind
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Recognizing differences in the physiology of fish is essential to understanding the problems associated with drug approval for the aquatic environment. A wide variety of experiments and the use of drugs in fish have been elucidated in various literatures. Antibacterial, antiparasitic and anaesthetic drugs, besides the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters have been well experimented on the fish. Several groups of drugs, such as tetracyclines, penicillins, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides, immunostimulants, anticancer agents, herbal drugs and vaccines, have been successfully experimented or used in fish. Hence, fish is also used as a new model organism for different experimental studies of pharmacology and toxicology. The potential for the application of research findings to both human and environmental health issues makes fish species attractive and valuable alternative models in various diseases, including cancer, and pharmacological and toxicological research. Zebrafish has emerged as a major model organism in the developmental genetics, neurophysiology or biomedical research.
MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES
Pandey Govind
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs) are now used for the prevention and treatment of various liver disorders. Although experimental studies have been conducted on a number of these plants and their formulations, however, only some plants have clearly shown the hepatogenic / hepatoprotective effects against liver diseases or hepatotoxicity caused by variety of hepatotoxic agents such as chemicals, drugs, pollutants, and infections from parasites, bacteria or viruses (e.g., hepatitis A, B and C), etc. Indeed, to obtain satisfactory herbal drugs for treating severe liver diseases, the medicinal plants must be evaluated systematically for properties like antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc.), antihepatotoxicity activity (antioxidants and others), stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. A combination of different herbal extracts / fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals which possess strong antioxidant property, leading to antihepatotoxic activity.
SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER HERBS: A REVIEW
Pandey Govind
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: A great deal of pharmaceutical research has considerably improved the quality of herbal drugs used against various types of cancer. With the advanced knowledge of molecular science and the refinement in isolation and structure elucidation techniques, we are in a much better position now to identify various anticancer herbs. Scientists all over the world are concentrating on the use of herbs to boost immune system of the body against cancer. Scientists have contributed for a number of years to identify hundreds of anticancer herbs, and developed various herbal formulations from their active principles that inhibit growth and spread of cancer without any side effect. Such herbs possess anticancer, immunoenhancing, antiangiogenesis, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. They inhibit growth and spread of cancer by modulating the activity of hormones, enzymes and other biological factors. The therapeutic effect of these herbs is executed by the complex synergistic interaction among their various active principles. Some important anticancer herbs have been discussed here.
MODEL ORGANISMS USED IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OR MEDICAL RESEARCH
Pandey Govind
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: A model organism is a non-human species that is studied to understand specific biological phenomena with the expectation that investigations made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. The model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human as well as animal diseases when experiments on animals or humans would be unfeasible or considered less ethical. Studying model organisms may be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another. Often, model organisms are chosen on the basis that they are amenable to experimental manipulation. When researchers look for an organism to use in their studies, they look for several traits. Among these are size, generation time, accessibility, manipulation, genetics, conservation of mechanisms and potential economic benefit. As comparative molecular biology has become more common, some researchers have sought model organisms from a wider assortment of lineages on the tree of life. There are many model organisms, such as viruses (e.g., Phage lambda virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, etc.), bacteria (e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio fischeri, etc.), algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Emiliania huxleyi, etc.), molds (e.g., Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, etc.), yeasts (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ustilago maydis, etc.), higher plants (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Lemna gibba, Lotus japonicus, Nicotiana tabaccum, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, Zea mays, etc.) and animals (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans, guinea pig, hamster, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, dog, frog, Hydra, Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, fish, etc.).
ACTIVE PRINCIPLES AND MEDIAN LETHAL DOSE OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN.
Pandey Govind
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the active principles and median lethal dose (LD50) of Curcuma longa (Haldi) by conducting phytochemical and toxicity (acute and chronic) studies. The hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of haldi was prepared and its extractability was calculated as 35.9%. The chemical tests revealed the presence of many active principles (phytoconstituents) such as alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins, resins, saponins, sterols and fixed oils. For acute toxicity, including median lethal dose (LD50) of C. longa, its HAE was administered @ 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight to female albino rats of groups 2 to 4, respectively. Rats of group 1 were administered with normal saline to serve as control. No mortality in any group of rats was found up to 48 hr, thus this drug has the LD50 above 1000 mg/kg. For chronic toxicity of C. longa HAE, similar drug dosage schedule was applied in groups 1 to 4 of rats as used for acute toxicity study; however, the drug-extract was given for 3 weeks. During both acute and chronic toxicity studies, C. longa HAE @ 1000 mg/kg elicited some gross observational effects like initial excitement, followed by mild depression, dullness, decreased respiration and reduced spontaneous motor activity (SMA). The results suggest that although haldi contains many pharmacologically important active principles but its higher dose (1000 mg/kg) is slightly toxic.
Transforming water supply regimes in India: Do public-private partnerships have a role to play?
Govind Gopakumar
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: Public-private partnerships (PPP) are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.
PHYSICAL EVALUATION AND QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FLOWERS EXTRACT OF NERIUM INDICUM.
Govind Patel
International Journal of Biomedical Research , 2011, DOI: 10.7439/ijbr.v1i5.74
Abstract: Nerium indicum is evergreen plant belonging to the Apocynaceae Family. The plant species collected in state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The flowers of Nerium indicum were collected locally, shade dried and extracted with petroleum ether and methanol by using Soxhlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrate glycosides, tannins, terpeniods, phenol and absence of steroids and saponins for methanolic extracts of Nerium indicum (flowers). The physical evaluation was carried out for the determination of methanol-soluble extractive value, water-soluble extractive value, Hexane-soluble extractive value; ash value includes total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash, and moisture content for flowers of Nerium indicum.
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