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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7713 matches for " Gouveia Nelson "
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Resíduos sólidos urbanos: impactos socioambientais e perspectiva de manejo sustentável com inclus?o social
Gouveia,Nelson;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232012000600014
Abstract: strategies to reconcile development with the protection of ecosystems will yet again be discussed at the forthcoming rio +20 summit. the management of solid urban waste is an issue which has barely been touched upon in such discussions. given the institutionalization of the national solid waste policy, this paper seeks to contribute to this debate and to single out alternatives to tackle this issue with an emphasis on social inclusion. for this purpose, specialized scientific literature was consulted as well as information on solid waste management. it is clearly seen that inadequate management of solid waste has immediate impacts on the environment and health, and contributes to climate change. considering the limitations of the current options for waste disposal, it is essential to minimize the quantities produced by reducing, reusing and recycling. in this context, the role of independent waste gatherers who have been conducting work of great environmental importance is highlighted. given the vulnerabilities of this population, it is necessary to devise public policies to ensure that waste gathering is a more respected and less risky activity that guarantees an income, so as to move towards more healthy, equitable and sustainable development.
Saúde e meio ambiente nas cidades: os desafios da saúde ambiental
Gouveia, Nelson;
Saúde e Sociedade , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12901999000100005
Abstract: in a matter of few years there will be more urban than rural dwellers worldwide. the rapid urbanisation lacking adequate control and regulatory mechanisms typical of developing countries, brought along huge effects to the health of the population environmental problems traditionally related to poverty and underdevelopment such as insufficient provision of sanitation services, waste collection and disposal, and precarious housing conditions, are now added to environmental problems considered of "modern life" such as the chemical and physical pollution of the air, water and soil. once again, the poor population is affected by a disproportionate share of the bad effects of urbanisation thus, environmental and health inequalities and inequities become enormous. in order to change this picture, environmental issues need to be re-incorporated into the health policy agenda and the objectives of environmental health should be integrated into a sustainable development approach. intersectoral dialogue between partners will also bring benefits in the achievement of a better quality of life for the population. today, environmental health faces the challenge of promoting better quality of health and life in the cities and the opportunity of confronting the absurd picture of social exclusion under the perspective of equity.
Aplica??o de regress?o baseada no uso do solo para predizer a concentra??o de material particulado inalável no município de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Habermann, Mateus;Gouveia, Nelson;
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-41522012000200004
Abstract: the study intended to develop a land use regression model to predict inhalable particulate matter (pm10) concentrations in s?o paulo, brazil. the model was based on the 2007 average of pm10 available from 9 monitoring stations and demographic, roads and land use data in buffers of 250 to 1,000 m. simple linear regression were used to select the more robust independent variables and those without collinearity. four variables were selected for the multiple regression analysis. only light traffic in buffers <250 m remained in the final model which explained 63.8% of the pm10variance.the land use regression approach is a quick and easy method to predict air pollution levels. however, our model was based on measurements of only a few sites.
Quantifying the impact of air pollution on the urban population of Brazil
Marcilio, Izabel;Gouveia, Nelson;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2007001600013
Abstract: this study aimed to quantify air pollution impact on morbidity and mortality in the brazilian urban population using locally generated impact factors. concentration-response coefficients were used to estimate the number of hospitalizations and deaths attributable to air pollution in seven brazilian cities. poisson regression coefficients (b) were obtained from time-series studies conducted in brazil. the study included individuals 65 years old and over and children under five. more than 600 deaths a year from respiratory causes in the elderly and 47 in children were attributable to mean air pollution levels, corresponding to 4.9% and 5.5% of all deaths from respiratory causes in these age groups. more than 4,000 hospital admissions for respiratory conditions were also attributable to air pollution. these results quantitatively demonstrate the currently observed contribution of air pollution to mortality and hospitalizations in brazilian cities. such assessment is thought to help support the planning of surveillance and control activities for air pollution in these and similar areas.
Tráfego veicular e mortalidade por doen?as do aparelho circulatório em homens adultos
Habermann,Mateus; Gouveia,Nelson;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102011005000079
Abstract: objective: to assess the association between indicators of exposure to motor vehicle-related air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in male adults. methods: information on roads and traffic volume for the year 2007 in the city of s?o paulo, southeastern brazil, was obtained from the local traffic engineering division. data on mortality from cardiovascular diseases among men aged >40 years in 2005 were obtained from the mortality database of the city of s?o paulo. socioeconomic data from the 2000 population census and information on location of health care units were also collected. exposure was assessed by road density and traffic volume for each geographic unit (administrative districts). spatial regression (α= 5%) between these indicators of exposure and standardized mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases were estimated. the models were adjusted for socioeconomic variables, number of health care units in the districts and spatial autocorrelation. results: it was found a modest correlation between road density and traffic volume (r2 = 0.28). the central districts had the highest road densities. the spatial regression model of road density showed an association with mortality from cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.017). no association was found in the model of traffic volume. the socioeconomic variable was statistically significant in both models of road and traffic volume. conclusions: the association between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and road density is consistent with literature data. further individual-level epidemiological studies should be performed using more accurate methods for the assessment of exposure.
Justi?a Ambiental: uma abordagem ecossocial em saúde
Habermann,Mateus; Gouveia,Nelson;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008000600019
Abstract: the paper addresses the risk of contemporary technologies in the light of our current technological paradigm, its perception and tolerability, as well as its unequal distribution across society. the fundamental hypothesis, which emphasizes environmental justice, refers to hazards that are disproportionately or unjustly distributed across more socially and economically vulnerable groups, which are generally the poor and the minorities affected by the environmental risks posed by modernity. therefore, vulnerability and the different levels of deprivation act as drivers of the different levels of health across population groups. although environmental justice has initially been observed as a grassroots movement in the united states, its principles showed compatibility with global and local geographical scales. therefore, the aim of the study was to understand how the risks of contemporary technologies unequally affect the population under the perspective of environmental justice.
Aplica o de regress o baseada no uso do solo para predizer a concentra o de material particulado inalável no município de S o Paulo, Brasil Application of land use regression to predict the concentration of inhalable particular matter in S o Paulo city, Brazil
Mateus Habermann,Nelson Gouveia
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental , 2012,
Abstract: O estudo teve por objetivo construir um modelo de regress o baseada no uso do solo para predizer a concentra o material particulado inalável (MP10) no município de S o Paulo, Brasil. O estudo se baseou na média de MP10 de 2007 de 9 esta es de monitoramento. Obtiveram-se dados demográficos, viários e de uso do solo em círculos concêntricos de 250 a 1.000 m para compor o modelo. Calculou-se regress o linear simples para selecionar as variáveis mais robustas e sem colinearidade. Quatro variáveis entraram no modelo de regress o múltipla. Somente tráfego leve em círculos concêntricos <250 m permaneceu no modelo final, que explicou 63,8% da variancia de MP10. Verificou-se que o método de regress o baseada no uso do solo é rápido, de fácil execu o. Entretanto, este modelo se baseou em medi es de MP10 de poucos locais. The study intended to develop a land use regression model to predict inhalable particulate matter (PM10) concentrations in S o Paulo, Brazil. The model was based on the 2007 average of PM10 available from 9 monitoring stations and demographic, roads and land use data in buffers of 250 to 1,000 m. Simple linear regression were used to select the more robust independent variables and those without collinearity. Four variables were selected for the multiple regression analysis. Only light traffic in buffers <250 m remained in the final model which explained 63.8% of the PM10variance.The land use regression approach is a quick and easy method to predict air pollution levels. However, our model was based on measurements of only a few sites.
Retornos freqüentes como nova estratégia para ades?o ao tratamento de tuberculose
Bergel,Fernando Skazufka; Gouveia,Nelson;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102005000600005
Abstract: objective: treatment dropout is one of the major obstacles to the control of tuberculosis. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequent return strategy instituted at the tuberculosis control program, as well as the program as a whole, identifying and quantifying potential risk factors for dropout. methods: the present study was conducted in ubatuba, southeastern brazil. all patients (n=244) notified by the tuberculosis control program in the two years preceding and the two years following the introduction of the frequent return strategy in 1999 were included. we carried out a descriptive analysis of the data and analyzed treatment results and program evaluation indicators. we performed univariate and multivariate analysis in order to identify potential risk factors associated with dropout. we also analyzed the frequent return strategy using chi-squared tests. results: the strategy reduced the risk of treatment dropout from 12.3% to 4.9%. risk factors associated with dropout were lack of schooling (or=3.01; p=0.051), unemployment (or=3.36; p=0.046), and alcohol dependence (or=3.56; p=0.014). conclusions: the frequent return strategy reduced the risk of treatment dropout, although results did not reach statistical significance due to the small number of dropouts. this strategy may be an alternative for the supervised treatment for all patients recommended by the world health organization.
Rela??o entre baixo peso ao nascer e a polui??o do ar no Município de S?o Paulo
Medeiros,Andréa; Gouveia,Nelson;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102005000600015
Abstract: objective: air pollution has been investigated as a potential determinant for low birthweight. the aim of the present study was to study the effect of air pollution on birthweight. methods: we analyzed all deliveries by mothers living in the municipality of sao paulo, southeastern brazil, between 1998 and 2000. we estimated the prevalence of low birthweight according to newborn, mother, and delivery characteristics. only births occurring in the most central districts of the city were analyzed, totaling 311.735 events. for the evaluation of the effects of air pollution, we excluded preterm and multiple deliveries. pollutants analyzed were ozone (o3), sulfur dioxide (so2), nitrogen dioxide (no2), suspended particles (pm10), and carbon monoxide (co). the effect of maternal exposure to air pollution on birthweight was evaluated using linear and logistic regression. results: a total of 4.6% of newborns weighed less than 2,500 g at birth. maternal exposure to co, pm10, and no2 during the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with decreased birthweight. conclusions: our results reinforce the notion that maternal exposure to air pollution during the first trimester of pregnancy may contribute to lesser weight gain in the fetus.
Retornos freqüentes como nova estratégia para ades o ao tratamento de tuberculose
Bergel Fernando Skazufka,Gouveia Nelson
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2005,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Um dos principais obstáculos para o controle da tuberculose é o abandono de tratamento. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a estratégia de retornos freqüentes instituída no Programa de Controle da Tuberculose de Ubatuba, bem como o Programa como um todo, identificando e quantificando os potenciais fatores de risco associados ao abandono. MéTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em Ubatuba, Estado de S o Paulo. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes (n=224) notificados pelo Programa de Controle da Tuberculose, nos dois anos anteriores e posteriores à implementa o dos retornos freqüentes (1999). Efetuaram-se a análise descritiva dos pacientes, análise dos resultados de tratamento e de indicadores de avalia o do Programa. Foram realizadas análises univariadas e multivariadas para identificar possíveis fatores de risco associados ao abandono. Também foi avaliada a estratégia de retornos freqüentes por meio do teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A estratégia reduziu o risco de abandono de tratamento de tuberculose de 12,3% para 4,9%. Os fatores de risco associados ao abandono foram n o ter nenhuma escolaridade (OR=3,01; p=0,051), estar desempregado (OR=3,36; p=0,046) e ser dependente de álcool (OR=3,56; p=0,014). CONCLUS ES: A estratégia de retornos freqüentes reduziu o risco de abandono de tratamento de tuberculose, embora os resultados n o tenham alcan ado significancia estatística devido ao número reduzido de desfechos. Todavia, mostrou ser uma alternativa ao tratamento supervisionado para todos os pacientes, como recomendado pela Organiza o Mundial de Saúde.
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