Abstract:
We solve renormalization group equation in QCD in the presence of SU(3) constant chromo-electric field E^a with arbitrary color index a=1,2,...8 and find that the QCD coupling constant \alpha_s depends on two independent casimir/gauge invariants C_1=[E^aE^a] and C_2=[d_{abc}E^aE^bE^c]^2 instead of one gauge invariant C_1=[E^aE^a]. The \beta function is derived from the one-loop effective action. This coupling constant may be useful to study hadron formation from color flux tubes/strings at high energy colliders and to study quark-gluon plasma formation at RHIC and LHC.

Abstract:
We study non-perturbative gluon pair production from arbitrary time dependent chromo-electric field E^a(t) with arbitrary color index a =1,2,...8 via Schwinger mechanism in arbitrary covariant background gauge \alpha. We show that the probability of non-perturbative gluon pair production per unit time per unit volume per unit transverse momentum \frac{dW}{d^4xd^2p_T} is independent of gauge fixing parameter \alpha. Hence the result obtained in the Fynman-'t Hooft gauge, \alpha=1, is the correct gauge invariant and gauge parameter \alpha independent result.

Abstract:
We perform path integral for a quark (antiquark) in the presence of an arbitrary space-dependent static color potential A^a_0(x)(=-\int dx E^a(x)) with arbitrary color index a=1,2,...8 in SU(3) and obtain an exact non-perturbative expression for the generating functional. We show that such a path integration is possible even if one can not solve the Dirac equation in the presence of arbitrary space-dependent potential. It may be possible to further explore this path integral technique to study non-perturbative bound state formation.

Abstract:
In this paper we implement Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in non-equilibrium QCD to the definition of Collins-Soper fragmentation function. We consider a high p_T parton in QCD medium at initial time t_0 with arbitrary non-equilibrium (non-isotropic) distribution function f(\vec{p}) fragmenting to hadron. We formulate parton to hadron fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD in the light-cone quantization formalism. It may be possible to include final state interactions with the medium via modification of the Wilson lines in this definition of the non-equilibrium fragmentation function. This may be relevant to study hadron production from quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC.

Abstract:
We study the Schwinger mechanism in QCD in the presence of an arbitrary time-dependent chromo-electric background field $E^a(t)$ with arbitrary color index $a$=1,2,...8 in SU(3). We obtain an exact result for the non-perturbative quark (antiquark) production from an arbitrary $E^a(t)$ by directly evaluating the path integral. We find that the exact result is independent of all the time derivatives $\frac{d^nE^a(t)}{dt^n}$ where $n=1,2,...\infty$. This result has the same functional dependence on two Casimir invariants $[E^a(t)E^a(t)]$ and $[d_{abc}E^a(t)E^b(t)E^c(t)]^2$ as the constant chromo-electric field $E^a$ result with the replacement: $E^a \rightarrow E^a(t)$. This result relies crucially on the validity of the shift conjecture, which has not yet been established.

Abstract:
We study Schwinger mechanism for gluon pair production in the presence of arbitrary time-dependent chromo-electric background field $E^a(t)$ with arbitrary color index $a$=1,2,...8 in SU(3) by directly evaluating the path integral. We obtain an exact expression for the probability of non-perturbative gluon pair production per unit time per unit volume and per unit transverse momentum $\frac{dW}{d^4x d^2p_T}$ from arbitrary $E^a(t)$. We show that the tadpole (or single gluon) effective action does not contribute to the non-perturbative gluon pair production rate $\frac{dW}{d^4x d^2p_T}$. We find that the exact result for non-perturbative gluon pair production is independent of all the time derivatives $\frac{d^nE^a(t)}{dt^n}$ where $n=1,2,....\infty$ and has the same functional dependence on two casimir invariants $[E^a(t)E^a(t)]$ and $[d_{abc}E^a(t)E^b(t)E^c(t)]^2$ as the constant chromo-electric field $E^a$ result with the replacement: $E^a \to E^a(t)$. This result may be relevant to study the production of a non-perturbative quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove factorization of fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD by using Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism. We use the background field method of QCD in a pure gauge in path integral approach to prove factorization of fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD. Our proof is valid in any arbitrary gauge fixing parameter $\alpha$. This may be relevant to study hadron production from quark-gluon plasma at high energy heavy-ion colliders at RHIC and LHC.

Abstract:
Factorization theorem plays the central role at high energy colliders to study standard model and beyond standard model physics. The proof of factorization theorem is given by Collins, Soper and Sterman to all orders in perturbation theory by using diagrammatic approach. One might wonder if one can obtain the proof of factorization theorem through symmetry considerations at the lagrangian level. In this paper we provide such a proof.

Abstract:
Proof of factorization of soft and collinear divergences in non-equilibrium QCD may be necessary to study hadronic signatures of quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. In this paper we prove factorization of soft and collinear divergences in non-equilibrium QED by using Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in the background field method in pure gauge.

Abstract:
The $Q^2$ evolution of fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD by using DGLAP evolution equation may be necessary to study hadron formation from quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. In this paper we study splitting functions in non-equilibrium QCD by using Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism. For quarks and gluons with arbitrary non-equilibrium distribution functions $f_q({\vec p})$ and $f_g({\vec p})$, we derive expressions for quark and gluon splitting functions in non-equilibrium QCD at leading order in $\alpha_s$. We make a comparison of these splitting functions with that obtained by Altarelli and Parisi in vacuum.