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Bone graft substitutes for the treatment of traumatic fractures of the extremities [Knochenersatzmaterialien zur Behandlung von traumatischen Frakturen der Extremit ten]
Hagen, Anja,Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2012, DOI: 10.3205/hta000102
Abstract: [english] Bone graft substitutes are increasingly being used as supplements to standard care or as alternative to bone grafts in the treatment of traumatic fractures.The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of bone graft substitutes for the treatment of traumatic fractures as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of their use are the main research questions addressed.A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc.) in December 2009. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), where applicable also containing relevant health economic evaluations and publications addressing the ethical, social and legal aspects of using bone graft substitutes for fracture treatment were included in the analysis. After assessment of study quality the information synthesis of the medical data was performed using metaanalysis, the synthesis of the health economic data was performed descriptively. 14 RCT were included in the medical analysis, and two in the heath economic evaluation. No relevant publications on the ethical, social and legal implications of the bone graft substitute use were found. In the RCT on fracture treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) versus standard care without bone grafting (RCT with an elevd high risk of bias) there was a significant difference in favour of BMP-2 for several outcome measures. The RCT of calcium phosphate (CaP) cement and bone marrow-based composite materials versus autogenous bone grafts (RCT with a high risk of bias) revealed significant differences in favour of bone graft substitutes for some outcome measures. Regarding the other bone graft substitutes, almost all comparisons demonstrated no significant difference.The use of BMP-2 in addition to standard care without bone grafting led in the study to increased treatment costs considering all patients with traumatic open fractures. However, cost savings through the additional use of BMP-2 were calculated in a patient subgroup with high-grade open fractures (Gustilo-Anderson grade IIIB). Cost-effectiveness for BMP-2 versus standard care with autologous bone grafts as well as for other bone graft substitutes in fracture treatment has not been determined yet. Although there were some significant differences in favour of BMP-2, due to the overall poor quality of the studies the evidence can only be interpreted as suggestive for efficacy. In the case of CaP cements and bone marrow-based bone substitute materials, the evidence is only weakly suggestive for efficacy. From an overall economic perspective, the transferability o
Coated stents to prevent restenosis in coronary heart disease
Gorenoi, Vitali,Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2005,
Abstract: Background: In-stent-restenosis (ISR) is considered to be an essential limiting factor of stenting in coronary heart disease (CHD). The development of coated stents has raised expectations on substantial lowering restenosis after stenting with decreasing the rate of restenosis and a reduction in the rate of clinical events. Objectives: The present analysis addresses the questions on medical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the use of various coated stent types in CHD. Methods: The literature was searched in December 2004 in the most relevant medical and economic databases. The medical evaluation was conducted on the basis of published RCT. The data from the studies regarding various angiographic, sonographic and clinical endpoints were checked for methodical quality and summarised in meta-analyses. Within the scope of economic evaluation the primary studies were analysed and modelling was performed, applying clinical effect estimates from the meta-analyses of the medical evaluation and current estimates of German costs. Results: Medical evaluation: Ten different stenttypes were used in the included 26 RCT. The results for heparin, silicon-carbide, carbon and PTFE coated stenttypes could not reveal any significant differences between the medical effectiveness of coated and uncoated stents. The application of sirolimus, paclitaxel, everolimus and 7-hexanoyltaxol eluting stents showed a significant lower restenosis at 6-9 months with decrease in the rate of restenosis for polymer-based sirolimus, paclitaxel and 7-hexanoyltaxol eluting stents. In contrast, the use of gold-coated and actinomycin-D eluting stents was associated with a significantly higher restenosis. The polymer-based sirolimus and paclitaxel eluting stents also showed a significant and considerable reduction in the rate of repeated percutaneous revascularisations at 6-12 months (3.5% vs. 19.7%; p<0.0001, RR=0.19 [95%CI: 0.11; 0.33] and 3.5% vs. 12.2%; p<0.0001, RR=0.30 [95%CI: 0.20; 0.43]) and an equivalent reduction in the rate of combined events. The 7-hexanoyltaxol-eluting stents caused, however, a significant increase of stent thrombosis as well as of myocardial infarctions. Economic evaluation: The allocation to polymer-based sirolimus and paclitaxel eluting stents resulted in incremental costs (compared with uncoated stents) of approximately 1,421 € and 1,234 € per patient, taking in account expected revascularisations during the first year after implantation. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness-ratios per avoided revascularisation was 8,881 € and 13,711 €, respectively. The
Benefits and risks of hormonal contraception for women
Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2007,
Abstract: Scientific background: A large proportion of women of reproductive age in Germany use various methods of pregnancy prevention (contraception), among them various hormone-based methods. Hormonal contraceptives may be divided into combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives (pills, skin patches, vaginal rings), progestogen-only contraceptives (pills, injections, implants, hormone spirals) and emergency contraceptives. Research questions: The evaluation addressed the question of benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptives, their economic effects as well as their ethical-social and legal implications.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted in April 2006 starting from 2000. The evaluation is primarily based on systematic reviews. Results: In perfect use, all hormonal contraceptives excluding emergency contraceptives proved to be the most effective reversible contraceptive methods (rate of unintended pregnancies 0.05% to 0.3%). However, the typical use of oral contraceptives, injections, skin patches, and vaginal rings, which also considers possible application errors, showed a lower contraceptive efficacy (rate of unintended pregnancies 3% to 8%). It was lower than that of copper spirals. The risk of venous thromboembolism increased three to six times in users of hormonal contraceptives, the risks of stroke and myocardial infarction two to three times. The risk declined after discontinuation of use. The effects were estrogen-dose and progestogen-type dependent. The use of hormonal contraceptives showed a relative risk of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas of approximately 0.5 or 0.7, of breast and cervical cancer of approximately 1.2 or 1.6. The effect remained several years after discontinuation of use. The results concerning hepatocellular carcinoma suggested a carcinogenic effect. In women with acne, an improvement due to use of hormonal contraceptives was proven. Cervical chlamydial infections were more frequent in users of hormonal contraception. Headache appeared mostly only at the beginning of the use of combined oral contraceptives. Progestogen-only contraceptives worsened the results of the glucose tolerance test. A review of low evidence reported further risks of hormonal contraceptives (concerning menstrual problems, ovarian cysts, bone density, thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis) as well as further benefits (concerning blood pressure and Crohn’s disease). Hormonal spirals were shown to be more effective than spirals which do not release hormones. In emergency contraception, Levonorgestrel was more effective than the Yuzpe met
Assessments tools for risk prediction of cardiovascular diseases
Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2009,
Abstract: Scientific background: Cardiovascular diseases have an enormous epidemiological and economic importance. For the selection of persons with increased total cardiovascular risk for individual-targeted (e. g. drug-based) prevention interventions different risk prognosis instruments (equations, point scores and table charts) were derived from studies or databases. The transferability of these prognostic instruments on the populations not examined in these data sources as well as their comparability are not clear. Research questions: The evaluation addresses the questions on the existence of instruments for risk prediction of cardiovascular diseases, their transferability and comparability. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in the medical electronic databases in April 2008 beginning from 2004 and was completed with a hand search. Publications on the prognostic instruments for cardiovascular diseases as well as publications addressing external validity and/or comparing prognostic instruments were included in the evaluation. Results: The systematic lierature search yielded 734 hits. Three systematic reviews, 38 publications with descriptions of prognostic instruments and 29 publications with data on the validity of the prognosis instruments were identified. Most risk prognosis instruments are based on the Framingham cohort of the USA. Only the PROCAM study is completely based on the German reference population. Almost all prognostic instruments use the variables sex, age, smoking, different parameters of the lipid status and of the blood pressure. Different cardiovascular events are considered to be an end parameter in the prognosis instruments. The time span for predicted events in the studies mostly comprises ten years.Data on calibration of the prognosis instruments (a quotient of the predicted by the observed risk) are presented in nearly half of the studies on the validation, however in no study from Germany. Only single studies find the levels of calibration between 0.9 and 1.1. Many studies on the transferability of the prognosis instruments show a value of the discrimination (correct differentiation of persons with different risk levels, best value 1.0) between 0.7 and 0.8, few studies between 0.8 and 0.9 and no study over 0.9. The studies addressing the discrimination of the prognostic instruments on the German population almost always find values between 0.7 and 0.8. The comparison of the validity of different risk prognosis instruments shows a trend for a better calibration and a better discrimination for the prognosis instruments
Percutaneous coronary intervention with optimal medical therapy vs. optimal medical therapy alone for patients with stable angina pectoris
Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2011,
Abstract: Scientific background: Stable Angina Pectoris (AP) is a main syndrome of chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), a disease with enormous epidemiological and health economic relevance. Medical therapy and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are the most important methods used in the treatment of chronic CAD. Research questions: The evaluation addresses questions on medical efficacy, incremental cost-effectiveness as well as ethic, social and legal aspects in the use of PCI in CAD patients in comparison to optimal medical therapy alone. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in June 2010 in the electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc.) and was completed by a hand search. The medical analysis was initially based on systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) and was followed by the evaluation of RCT with use of current optimal medical therapy. The results of the RCT were combined using meta-analysis. The strength and the applicability of the determined evidence were appraised. The health economic analysis was initially focused on the published studies. Additionally, a health economic modelling was performed with clinical assumptions derived from the conducted meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from the German Diagnosis Related Groups 2011. Results: Seven systematic reviews (applicability of the evidence low) and three RCT with use of optimal medical therapy (applicability of the evidence for the endpoints AP and revascularisations moderate, for further endpoints high) were included in the medical analysis. The results from RCT are used as a base of the evaluation. The routine use of the PCI reduces the proportion of patients with AP attacks in the follow-up after one and after three years in comparison with optimal medical therapy alone (evidence strength moderate); however, this effect was not demonstrated in the follow-up after five years (evidence strength low). The difference in effect in the follow-up after four to five years was not found for the further investigated clinical endpoints: death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction and stroke (evidence strength high) as well as for severe heart failure (evidence strength moderate). Two studies were included in the health economic analysis. The costs estimations from these studies are not directly transferable to the corresponding costs in Germany. The average difference in the total costs for PCI in comparison with optimal medical therapy alone, which was calculated in the modelling, was found to be 4,217 Euro per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness
CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD
Vitali Gorenoi,Matthias P. Sch?nermark,Anja Hagen
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2012,
Abstract: Scientific background: Various diagnostic tests including conventional invasive coronary angiography and non-invasive computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography are used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research questions: The present report aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of CT coronary angiography versus invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc.) in October 2010 and was completed with a manual search. The literature search was restricted to articles published from 2006 in German or English. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of the relevant publications. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of diagnostic studies with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard and on diagnostic studies with intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard. Study results were combined in a meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Additionally, data on radiation doses from current non-systematic reviews were taken into account. A health economic evaluation was performed by modelling from the social perspective with clinical assumptions derived from the meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from contemporary German sources. Data on special indications (bypass or in-stent-restenosis) were not included in the evaluation. Only data obtained using CT scanners with at least 64 slices were considered. Results: No studies were found regarding the clinical efficacy or prognostic value of CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, 15 systematic reviews with data from 44 diagnostic studies using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard (identification of obstructive stenoses) and two diagnostic studies using intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard (identification of functionally relevant stenoses) were included in the medical evaluation. Meta-analysis of the nine studies of higher methodological quality showed that, CT coronary angiography with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard, had a sensitivity of 96 % (95 % CI: 93 % to 98 %), specificity of 86 % (95 % CI: 83 % to 89 %), positive likelihood ratio of 6.38 (95 % CI: 5.18 to 7.87) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.06 (95 % CI: 0.03 to 0.10). However, due to non-diagnostic CT images
Prevention of infection after knee arthroplasty
Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2010,
Abstract: Scientific background: Man-made joints (joint endoprostheses), including knee endoprostheses, are used in some irreversible diseases of the human joints. The implantation of joint endoprostheses (arthroplasty) is associated with an increased risk for infection. To prevent infections, different interventions without and with the use of antibiotics (hygiene procedures and antibiotic prophylaxis) are used. The benefits of these interventions are not clear yet. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions regarding the medical effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects related to the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. Methods: A systematic literature search is conducted in the medical electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciSearch etc. in June 2009 and has been completed by a hand search. The analysis includes publications which describe and/or evaluate clinical data from randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews of RCT, registers of endoprostheses or databases concerning interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The conducted literature search also aims to identify health-economic studies and publications dealing explicitly with ethical, social or legal aspects in the use of interventions to prevent infections after knee arthroplasty. The synthesis of information from different publications has been performed qualitatively. Results: The systematic literature search yields 1,030 hits. Based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of ten publications is included in the analysis. The presented report does not find evidence of the effectiveness of different hygiene interventions with a high evidence level. Most of the unspecific interventions are recommended on the basis of results from non-RCT, from studies for other clinical indications and/or for clinically not relevant endpoints, as well as on the basis of expert opinions.The evidence of the effectiveness of intravenous prophylaxis with antibiotics in knee arthroplasty on a high level of evidence is also missing. The recommendations use evidence on the intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis transferred from RCT in hip arthroplasty to the arthroplasty of all joints including knee replacement. Moreover, no evidence is found for differences in the effectiveness between various antibiotics in knee arthroplasty. The presented report finds strong hints for the effectiveness of antibiotics in cement in addition to the intravenous prophylaxis; however, evidence of the effe
Specific immunotherapy (SIT) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis
Hagen, Anja,Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2010,
Abstract: Scientific background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) exhibits a prevalence of approx. 20% in Germany and causes enormous costs in the health care system. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is considered to be the only potentially causal therapy for AR and mainly administered by two routes, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublinguale (SLIT). SIT promises a reduction of symptoms and the need for medication in patients with AR. Research questions: The question arises, to what extent is SIT effective and cost effective in the treatment of AR and which ethical-social and legal aspects have to be considered regarding its application. Methods: The literature search was accomplished in the electronic data bases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. in February 2008. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of blinded, randomised controlled studies (RCT). The economic evaluation included health-economic studies on the basis of RCT. Additionally, it was also searched for publications explicitly addressing ethical-social and legal aspects of the use of SIT. Results: Medical evaluationTwo reviews on SCIT and three on SLIT were included in the medical evaluation. For the evaluation of SIT with grass pollen results for short and medium-term effects are considered from several studies, for SIT with other seasonal allergens (e. g. tree pollen) and with house dust mite allergens from clearly fewer studies and for SIT with other perennial allergens only from a few. The reviews report a significant reduction of the symptom and medication score in favour of SCIT with seasonal allergens and recognise the effectiveness at least for grass pollen allergens. Also for other seasonal allergens SCIT is appraised as effective. The reviews about SLIT determine a significant reduction of the symptom and the medication score in favour of SLIT vs. placebo in short and medium term follow-up in evaluations across all allergens. The subgroup analyses show a significant reduction of the symptom and medication score only in favour of SLIT with seasonal allergens. Health economic evaluationFour publications about two health economic studies are identified, one of these publications on Alutard-SQ injections (SCIT) and three on GRAZAX tablets (SLIT). The studies provide more (on Alutard-SQ ) or less (on GRAZAX ) robust information, but no evidence on cost effectiveness of these SIT administration forms in patients with AR. Discussion: The topic of the report is very broad, so that the evidence is summarised using systematic reviews. In particular the statistic heterogeneity of the studies found in the reviews consid
Arthroplasty register for Germany
Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2009,
Abstract: Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and/or hospitals, provide annual reports and publish scientific articles and/or presentations. The effects of the arthroplasty registers on clinical practice and on health political decisions in the time after the introduction of these registers are documented in some countries. The influence on cost savings for health services is also reported. Discussion: The most important legal and ethical aspect is the patient’s data protection and, therefore, the requirement of patient’s consent. The involvement of the physicians in the data collection process is a further organisational and legal challenge. The 100% data collection,
Interventions for enhancing medication compliance/adherence with benefits in treatment outcomes
Gorenoi, Vitali,Sch?nermark, Matthias P.,Hagen, Anja
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2007,
Abstract: Scientific background: Poor compliance or adherence in drug therapy can cause increased morbidity, mortality and enormous costs in the healthcare system (in Germany annually approximately 10 billion euros). Different methods are used for enhancing the compliance or adherence. Research questions: The evaluation addresses the questions about existence, efficacy, cost-benefit relation as well as ethical-social and juridical implications of strategies for enhancing compliance or adherence in drug therapy with concomitant improvements in treatment outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the medical, also health economic relevant, literature databases in January 2007, beginning from 2002. Systematic reviews on the basis of (randomised controlled trials (RCT) concerning interventions to enhance compliance or adherence with regard to treatment outcomes as well as systematic reviews of health economic analyses were included in the evaluation. Additionally, it was also searched for publications which primarily considered ethical-social and juridical aspects of these interventions for the German context. Results: One systematic review with data for 57 RCT was included in the medical evaluation and one systematic review with data for six studies into the health economic evaluation. No publication primary concerning ethical-social or juridical implications could be identified. A significant positive effect on the treatment outcome was reported for 22 evaluated interventions. For many interventions the results can be classified as reliable: counseling with providing an information leaflet and compliance diary chart followed by phone consultation for helicobacter pylori positive patients, repeated counseling for patients with acute asthma symptoms, telephone calls to establish the level of compliance and to make recommendations based on that for the therapy of cardiovascular diseases, calls of an automated telephone system with phone counseling in problem cases for diabetics, different family based interventions including repeated family counseling, education and "culturally modified family therapy" in patients with schizophrenia, repeated "compliance therapy" sessions for patients with acute psychosis. For other interventions the results should be viewed with more concern (because of the poor methodical quality of the underlying studies). The effect size of the interventions can not be estimated from the available data. From the available data, no reliable results can be provided concerning the cost-benefit relation of these strategies. Dis
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