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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222113 matches for " Gordon C Wishart "
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Introduction to sessions on guidelines and endocrine therapy, the influence of breast screening on number of mastectomies and the challenge between molecular science and traditional dogma in the treatment of breast cancer. Introduction to Session 6
Gordon C Wishart, Udi Chetty
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2436
Abstract: Professor Ian Smith presented results from BIG 1-98 comparing 5 years of letrozole with tamoxifen. These results, first presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium in 2008 [3], show no statistically significant overall survival benefit for Letrozole at 76 months follow up. These results support a recent meta-analyses of AI use that showed no evidence of a significant overall survival advantage when AIs are used up front [4]. In fact, the only AI studies that demonstrate an overall survival advantage to date involve switching to an AI after initial therapy with tamoxifen [5]. Current American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines, and recent National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines, allow clinicians to decide whether to pursue an up-front approach to AI use or whether to adopt a switching strategy.Professor Ian Smith also presented a summary of results from the Z-FAST and ZO-FAST studies, comparing the effects of zoledronic acid initiated concurrently with letrozole or when bone loss becomes clinically significant in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. An integrated analysis of both studies [6] suggests that up-front use of zoledronic acid is an effective strategy to prevent AI-associated bone loss, when given in combination with letrozole for postmenopausal women, and in addition appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Although the recurrence data require further follow up, these early results would support a change in the 2009 National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines.Professor Mike Dixon presented data on the number of mastectomies currently performed for early breast cancer in the UK using data from the NHS Breast Screening Programme. He suggested that although the mastectomy rate for screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ has remained fairly constant in recent years, the massive increase in the numbers of women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ means that overall the number of mastectomies has
Correction: PREDICT: a new UK prognostic model that predicts survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer
Gordon C Wishart, Elizabeth M Azzato, David C Greenberg, Jem Rashbass, Olive Kearins, Gill Lawrence, Carlos Caldas, Paul DP Pharoah
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2480
Abstract:
PREDICT: a new UK prognostic model that predicts survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer
Gordon C Wishart, Elizabeth M Azzato, David C Greenberg, Jem Rashbass, Olive Kearins, Gill Lawrence, Carlos Caldas, Paul DP Pharoah
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2464
Abstract: Using the Eastern Cancer Registration and Information Centre (ECRIC) dataset, information was collated for 5,694 women who had surgery for invasive breast cancer in East Anglia from 1999 to 2003. Breast cancer mortality models for oestrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative tumours were derived from these data using Cox proportional hazards, adjusting for prognostic factors and mode of cancer detection (symptomatic versus screen-detected). An external dataset of 5,468 patients from the West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit (WMCIU) was used for validation.Differences in overall actual and predicted mortality were <1% at eight years for ECRIC (18.9% vs. 19.0%) and WMCIU (17.5% vs. 18.3%) with area under receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) of 0.81 and 0.79 respectively. Differences in breast cancer specific actual and predicted mortality were <1% at eight years for ECRIC (12.9% vs. 13.5%) and <1.5% at eight years for WMCIU (12.2% vs. 13.6%) with AUC of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Model calibration was good for both ER positive and negative models although the ER positive model provided better discrimination (AUC 0.82) than ER negative (AUC 0.75).We have developed a prognostication model for early breast cancer based on UK cancer registry data that predicts breast cancer survival following surgery for invasive breast cancer and includes mode of detection for the first time. The model is well calibrated, provides a high degree of discrimination and has been validated in a second UK patient cohort.Accurate prediction of survival is an essential part of the decision making process following surgery for early breast cancer and allows clinicians to determine which patients will benefit from adjuvant therapy. At present these decisions are largely based on known pathological prognostic factors that retain independent significance on multivariate analysis including tumour size, tumour grade and lymph node status in addition to the efficacy of any adjuvant thera
MetaboMiner – semi-automated identification of metabolites from 2D NMR spectra of complex biofluids
Jianguo Xia, Trent C Bjorndahl, Peter Tang, David S Wishart
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-507
Abstract: We describe a standalone graphics software tool, called MetaboMiner, which can be used to automatically or semi-automatically identify metabolites in complex biofluids from 2D NMR spectra. MetaboMiner is able to handle both 1H-1H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) and 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) data. It identifies compounds by comparing 2D spectral patterns in the NMR spectrum of the biofluid mixture with specially constructed libraries containing reference spectra of ~500 pure compounds. Tests using a variety of synthetic and real spectra of compound mixtures showed that MetaboMiner is able to identify >80% of detectable metabolites from good quality NMR spectra.MetaboMiner is a freely available, easy-to-use, NMR-based metabolomics tool that facilitates automatic peak processing, rapid compound identification, and facile spectrum annotation from either 2D TOCSY or HSQC spectra. Using comprehensive reference libraries coupled with robust algorithms for peak matching and compound identification, the program greatly simplifies the process of metabolite identification in complex 2D NMR spectra.Metabolomics is a rapidly-growing field of "-omics" research concerned with the high-throughput comparison, identification and quantification of large numbers of metabolites in biological systems [1]. Metabolomics only became possible as a result of recent technology breakthroughs in small molecule separation, identification and quantification. These include advances in ultra-sensitive, ultra-precise mass spectrometry (MS), robotic, multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and greatly improved HPLC and UPLC separation technologies [2]. While other techniques may be more sensitive or less expensive, NMR has emerged as an ideal platform for studying metabolites in biofluids. It is a rapid, highly precise, non-destructive, and quantitative technique that allows one to compare, identify and quantify a wide range of compounds without the need for prior compo
A comparison of preferred learning styles, approaches and methods between information science and computing science undergraduates
Jocelyn Wishart
ITALICS , 2005,
Abstract: In recent years the two disciplines of Information and Library Studies and Computer Science have drawn closer together to the extent that now there are several universities where they are combined in a single school of Information and Computing Science or Informatics. Currently, a single Higher Education Academy Subject Centre serves the two disciplines. However, there are marked differences between the disciplines observable immediately in the gender balance of their respective undergraduate cohorts which Computer Science tending to attract males and Information Science, females. This project set out to investigate other less obvious differences by means of an online survey of first year undergraduates’ preferred learning styles, approaches to study and learning environments.134 first year undergraduates’ from 6 UK universities took part in the online survey and results show that, whilst there was a clear gender imbalance between Computer Science with its almost entirely male population and information Sciences with its mostly female, differences in learning styles and approaches were less clear. There was a wide variety of individual learning styles and approaches in the same population and it would not be safe to conclude that any one approach would meet the needs of an entire cohort of Information or Computer Scientists as, whenever an overall tendency appeared, there was always a small but significant group who had an opposite preference. Differences in preferred learning methods were clearer. More than twice as many Information Scientists than Computer Scientists preferred talking and discussing as a method of learning whereas Computer Scientists were significantly more likely than Information Scientists (p<.05) to prefer solving problems. Neither group enjoyed reading from journals or lectures. Two key teaching points for lecturers to note arose in the study; the use of advance organisers in teaching both on and offline and the need to prepare students for and support them in the use of journals.
Researching New Methods of Screening for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Lessons from Pre-eclampsia
Gordon C. S. Smith
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001274
Abstract:
PARADIGMAS DIFERENTES, FALLAS COMUNES: HACIA UN NUEVO ENFOQUE DEL FEDERALISMO EN ESTADOS UNIDOS
Gordon,Mark C.;
Revista de Economía Institucional , 2000,
Abstract: this article presents a new approach to federalism that focuses more on the outcome desired than on formal power relationships, considers more realistically the role played by states and localities, and incorporates the role of citizens more directly in the analysis. this approach underlines, contrary to the approach of the u. s. supreme court and congress, how to structure the federal system so that each level of government can best contribute to public problems solutions and recognizes that interaction, partnership, and occasionally tension between levels of government are required to insure that citizens become more engaged in north american civil society.
Impact of Land Use on River Systems in Ghana
JS Ayivor, C Gordon
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: Rivers play significant roles in the provision of water for domestic and industrial purposes. Nevertheless, land use dynamics continue to impact on river catchments which have negative repercussions for river health. This study focuses on land use change in the Okyeman Traditional Area, which encompasses three major river basins namely, the Densu, the Birim and the Ayensu. The study was aimed at investigating causes and impacts of land use change within the three river catchments and how these impacts could be curtailed to safeguard river health and sustainable water supply. Data for the study was derived from analysis of remotely sensed Landsat 7 ETM satellite imagery, and from questionnaire administration. Additional information was culled from the existing literature on land use, land use change, land cover change and related subjects. One major finding was that most of the river basins have undergone massive transformation over the last three decades as a result of various land use activities. The dominant land use types in the basins presently are agriculture, urban development, grazing, residential and transportation and fishing. The study also revealed that mining, indiscriminate waste disposal, water extraction and deforestation for fuel wood and other domestic uses, excessive use of chemical fertilizers and land degradation due to improper agricultural practices are also major land use activities that impact negatively on the river systems. The study concluded that there is the need to streamline land use activities, conserve vital ecosystems like watershed areas and maintain buffers along stream channels as a matter of policy to ensure adequate protection of aquatic fauna and to ensure sustainable water supply.
Aquatic Insect Fauna of Three River Systems in the Akyem Abuakwa Traditional area of The Eastern Region of Ghana
R Kyerematen, C Gordon
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: Three river systems in the Akyem Abuakwa Traditional Area: Ayensu, Birim and Densu were sampled over a period of one year during the wet, dry and intermediate seasons for aquatic insect fauna. Fifteen sampling sites were chosen based on certain parameters such as accessibility as well as the inclusion of high and low impact sites (i.e. close to or far from a town or village) or near areas with high human activity. Four sampling methods were employed: sweeping, core sampling, sieving and washing of stones, wood fragments and submerged objects as well as aquatic plants and leaves. Fifty seven (57) species of aquatic insects belonging to 26 families of 7 orders were recorded. Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera and Odonata were the most diverse and abundant orders with Hemiptera being the most diverse order with 17 species from 8 families. The most abundant species was Rhagovelia obesa (Hemiptera: Veliidae). The highest number of insects was collected in December whiles July recorded the lowest numbers. River Densu recorded the highest number of insects whiles River Birim recorded the highest diversity of insects with 36 species. River Ayensu had both the lowest numbers and diversity of insects.
Watershed Disturbance and its Potential Effects on River Systems in the Okyeman Traditional Area of Ghana: The Case of Atewa Range Forest Reserve
JS Ayivor, C Gordon
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2012,
Abstract: The Atewa Range Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana is a very important watershed which serves three important river systems - the Densu, Ayensu and Birim, all in southern Ghana. Widespread degradation of the forest reserve as a result of rampant anthropogenic activities threatens the long-term sustainability of these water bodies. The study examined local dependence on products from the forest reserve and its effects on the watershed with the view to highlighting the magnitude of the exploitation in order to inform policy makers and planners on the need to protect this strategic watershed. Data for the study was collected through literature search and questionnaire administration of seven communities involving 76 respondents within the vicinity of the reserve. The findings revealed that not only do the local people exploit the Atewa Range Forest Reserve products like timber, fuel wood and bushmeat for home consumption but they also trade in these products. Incomes derived from the sale of forest products in the seven communities within a year was estimated at US$ 84,014.22 which is very significant. The findings also revealed that a major reason for the high local dependence on the reserve is the demand pressure not only from the neighbouring communities but the travelling public who patronize the forest product from hawkers by the roadside. The study concluded by reiterating the strategic importance of the Atewa Range Forest Reserve as a watershed, and suggested the need for all concerned to protect it against all forms of disturbance.
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