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Gordana Kralik,Helga Medi?,Nives Maru?i?,Zlata Kralik
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2011,
Abstract: Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles with respect to broiler sex. Content of carnosine was slightly higher in female broiler breast muscles than in male’s (1079.85 : 1012.66 μg/g tissue; P>0.05). Female broiler thigh muscle tissue also contained higher carnosine values than male’s (464.69 : 404.97 μg/g tissue; P>0.05). The research proved that carnosine was more deposited in breast muscle tissue than in thigh muscle tissue, regardless of broiler sex. Lipid peroxidation products measured as TBARS values (mg MDA/kg tissue) did not statistically differ according to broiler sex or muscle type (P>0.05). Further research needs to be directed towards control of peroxidation products during meat storage.
Gordana Kralik,Zlata Kralik,Manuela Gr?evi?,Zoran ?krti?
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2012,
Abstract: Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA) and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.
Gordana Kralik,Rudolf Scitovski,Goran Ku?ec
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2001,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to find the mathematical model which gives the best results in estimation of biological growth maximum of fattening chicken. Used models were: general exponential function, von Bertalanffy′s model, logistic function and generalized logistic function. In the investigations of growth characteristics Avian 24 K, Arbor Acres and Ross 208 proveniencies of broilers were used. The results of the research show that the best data for estimation of biological maximum of chicken growth in relation to sex ensures generalized logistic function with γ = 0.18 (asymmetric S-function) γ γ / 1) 1() (t cbeAt f += . The asymptotic value of A for male chicken was, respectively: 5.72 kg, 5.90 kg and 4.47 kg, and for female chicken: 4.06 kg, 4.75 kg, 4.46 kg. In case of segregated fattening regarding gender, ability of live weight estimation of chicken at certain age is of great importance for optimal utilization of genetic potential and obtaining higher flock uniformity at delivery and slaughtering of the chickens.
Zoran ?krti?,Gordana Kralik,Zlata Gaj?evi?
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2007,
Abstract: The research into growth characteristics of turkey hybrid was carried out on 60 one-day-old turkeys (30 toms and 30 hens) of Nicholas 700 provenience. The research lasted for 19 weeks. Each turkey was marked with a leg ring. During the experiment, turkeys were fed commercial mixtures. Evaluation of the inflection point and of separate growth phases was obtained by means of asymmetric S-function (Kralik and Scitovski, 1993): f tAbec t( )( )/=+ 11 γ γ, ticbB=+ + + + γ γ γ γ γ γln( ) ( )( )23 1 5, ticbC=+ + + γ γ γ γ γ γln( ) ( )( )23 1 5End weight of turkey toms was higher than the one of hens by 34.63% (14811±906 g : 11005±993 g). Differences in final weights between sexes, as well as in weights over the whole fattening period were statistically highly significant (P<0.001). Average absolute and relative gains (gain rates) of toms in comparison to hens were 776 g and 12.45%, and 567 g and 12.11%, respectively. By the parameters of asymmetric S-function, intensification of progressive growth phase in turkey toms started after the 5thweek, and in turkey hens it was prolonged for several days. Determined biological maximum in toms was 17.966 kg, and in hens 12.889 kg. Intensive growth of hens lasted up to the beginning of the 15thweek, while toms grew intensively up to the end of the 15thweek. Positions of the inflection point in hens were determined at the beginning of the 10thPhD. Zoran krti , Assistant Professor; Dr.Sc.Dr.h.c. Gordana Kralik, Full Professor; MSc. Zlata Gaj evi -Faculty of Agriculture of Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Special Zootechnics, Trg Sv. Trojstva 3, 31 000 Osijek, Croatia, e-mail:week, and in toms in the middle of that week.
Gordana Kralik,Vladimir Margeta,Danica Han?ek
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2006,
Abstract: The objective of this research was to compare the quality of carcass and meat of selected pigs in Croatia. Investigation was carried out on 80 pigs, divided into three groups. Pigs from 1st and 2ndgroups were threeway crossbreeds between Large White and Swedish Landrace on the dam side and Pietrain (1st group) and German Landrace (2ndgroup) on the sire side. 3rdgroup was created from pigs crossbreed between Large White and German Landrace of the dam side, and Pietrain on the sire side. Influence of crossbreeding on lean meat percentage, Fat/MLD ratio and portions of main parts in carcass (except for shoulder) was statistically significant (P<0.001). The highest portion of muscular tissue was obtained in the 3rdgroup (62.80%), followed by the 1st group (56.50%) and the 2ndone (52.33%). The 2ndgroup exhibited the best indicators of MLD technological properties (pH45, pH24, W.H.C. and color). Carcasses with lower lean meat percentage had better meat quality traits than those with higher lean meat percentage.
Gordana Kralik,Stanko Ivankovi?,Zoran ?krti?
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2005,
Abstract: The research was carried out on chickens of Ross 208 provenience, which were divided into two groups. Chickens reared outdoor had statistically significantly higher portion of α-linolenic acid (P<0.05), linoleic and arachidonic acid, as well as higher total of PUFA n-6 acids (P<0.01) than chickens that were kept indoor. However, these chickens had higher portion of myristic and palmitic acid (P<0.01), as well as DHA (P<0.001) in the lipids of breast muscles. There was also higher content of myristic and linoleic acids (P<0.01) determined in the lipids of thigh muscles of chickens reared indoor, while chickens kept outdoor had higher content of EPA (P<0.01), palmitic, stearic and arachidonic acids (P<0.001). Chickens of the 2ndgroup exhibited more favorable ratio of PUFA n-6 / PUFA n-3 in the lipids of breast muscles. The same ratio for the lipids of thigh muscles was better in the 1stgroup
The influence of different fat sources on fattening of turkeys and composition of fatty acids in breast muscles
Zoran Skrtic,Gordana Kralik,Danica Hanzˇek
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.3s.91
Abstract: The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence that different fat sources (Bergafat-BF, Pronova Biocare Epax 3000 TG-PBE and rape oil-RO) have on fattening characteristics of turkeys and composition of lipids in breast muscles, if added separately in the amount of 3% and also equally combined in finishing diets. The research was carried out on 180 heavy hybrid turkeys of Nicholas 700 provenience. Different sources of fat did not have statistically significant effect (P>0.05) on finishing weights, average daily weight gain, consumption and feed conversion. However, supplementation of the above stated fat sources changed highly significantly (P<0.001) the content of SFA, MUFA and EPA+DHA in the lipids of breast muscles. Rape oil, which was added to diets, had positive effect on the content of SFA and MUFA. In comparison to non-supplemented diets, supplementation of Pronova preparation to diets resulted in doubling of the desirable EPA+DHA.
The effect of different oil supplementations on laying performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolk
Gordana Kralik,Zlata Gaj?evi?,Zoran ?krti?
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2008.173
Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine effects of different combinations of rapeseed and fish oil - instead of soybean oil - on the performance of laying hens and on the profile of fatty acids in egg yolks, especially on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), when such oils are added to the diet of laying hens. The research was carried out on 90 laying hens of the Hy-Line hybrid ranging in age from 32 to 36 weeks old. Hens were divided into three groups (30 laying hens per groups) and fed with a commercial mixture that contained 17% of crude protein and 11.6 MJ ME. The research lasted for 28 days. The control group (C) was given diets with soybean oil supplemented in the amount of 5%, and experimental groups (E1 and E2) were fed diets that contained a combination of fish and rapeseed oils in different amounts. Diets given to the E1 group contained 3.5% of fish oil and 1.5% of rapeseed oil, while the E2 group was fed diets with 1.5% of fish oil and 3.5% of rapeseed oil. Production characteristics of hens were monitored during the whole experiment. Portion of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA), as well as α-linolenic (αLNA, C:18:3n-3) eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6n-3) acid were shown as a percentage of total fatty acids contained in yolk. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05) only in the hens’ end weights and laying intensity between the C and E1 group, as well as between the C and E2 group. The portion of SFA in total fatty acids contained in yolk was not statistically significant (P>0.05) among investigated groups. Higher content of MUFA was noticed in both experimental groups, if compared to the control (E1 41.37%: E2 40.72%, C 36.95%, P<0.05). Content of αLNA differed significantly (P<0.001) between E1 and the control group, and the content of DHA differed significantly (P<0.001) between E1 and the control group, as well as between E2 and the control group. Total n-3 PUFA was increased in the E1 group for 2.10, and in the E2 group for 1.41 times than in the control group. The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA was the lowest (P<0.05) in egg yolks of the E1 group (4.01), followed by that of the E2 group (6.56), and finally that of the control group (11.08).
Gordana Kralik,Helga Medi?,Nives Maru?i?,Zlata Gaj?evi?-Kralik
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine content of nutrients and carnosine concentration in thighs (dark meat)of chickens of the Ross 308 provenance with respect to chicken gender. Amount of carnosine is determinedby the HPLC device. Thigh muscle tissue of female and male chickens contains 339.28±68.17 μg/g and319.29±65.47 μg/g of carnosine (P>0.05), respectively. Live end weights of chickens are also shown, withaverage male chickens weights of 2377 g and female chickens 2104 g (P<0.01). Average carcass weightsof male and female chickens were 1600 g and 1443 g, respectively (P<0.01). Portions of basic parts in thecarcass and the composition of nutrients (lipids, proteins, moisture and collagen) in thigh muscles (P>0.05)are also shown. The obtained research results are explained in the context of other relevant studies on asimilar topic.
Gordana Kralik,Zoran ?krti?,Marica Galonja,Stanko Ivankovi?
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2001,
Abstract: The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks) regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3) and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6) fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.
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