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Nonlocal continuum mechanics formulation for axial, flexural, shear and contraction coupled wave propagation in single walled carbon nanotubes
Narendar, S;Gopalakrishnan, S;
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-78252012000400005
Abstract: this paper presents the effect of nonlocal scaling parameter on the coupled i.e., axial, flexural, shear and contraction, wave propagation in single-walled carbon nanotubes (swcnts). the axial and transverse motion of swcnt is modeled based on first order shear deformation theory (fsdt) and thickness contraction. the governing equations are derived based on nonlocal constitutive relations and the wave dispersion analysis is also carried out. the studies shows that the nonlocal scale parameter introduces certain band gap region in all wave modes where no wave propagation occurs. this is manifested in the wavenumber plots as the region where the wavenumber tends to infinite or wave speed tends to zero. the frequency at which this phenomenon occurs is called the escape frequency. explicit expressions are derived for cut-off and escape frequencies of all waves in swcnt. it is also shown that the cut-off frequencies of shear and contraction mode are independent of the nonlocal scale parameter. the results provided in this article are new and are useful guidance for the study and design of the next generation of nanodevices that make use of the coupled wave propagation properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes.
Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical Analysis of the Bark of Bauhinia tomentosa L.
S. Gopalakrishnan,E. Vadivel
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/509798
Abstract: The bark of Bauhinia tomentosa L. is used for inflammation, wound, dysentery, skin diseases and for microbial infections. In order to ensure the use of only genuine and uniform material in preparation of herbal formulation, work on standardization was carried out. Macroscopic, microscopic and physico-chemical characteters determination have been carried out, which would facilitate quick identification and selection of the drug from various adulterants.
DNA CLEVAGE STUDIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE BARK OF BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA L. AND THE WHOLE PLANT OF MUSSAENDA FRONDOSA L.
S. Gopalakrishnan,E. Vadivel
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: DNA cleavage studies of the ethanolic extracts of the bark of Bauhinia tomentosa L. (Fam, Fabaceae) and the whole plant of Mussaenda frondosa L. (Fam, Rubiaceae) have been performed. The cleavage of pUC18 DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both the plant extracts show a dose dependent increase from lower concentration to higher concentration. Ethanol extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L showed more cleavage activity than that of the Mussaenda frondosa L. The results have been compared with the standard DNA cleavage agent FeSO4.
IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FROM THE FRUITS OF CUCUMIS TRIGONUS ROXB. BY GC-MS ANALYSIS
Kalaiarasi T.,Gopalakrishnan S.
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i5.727
Abstract: Cucumis trigonus Roxb. (Fam. Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as “Thummittikai” in Tamil, and “Vishala” in Sanskrit is reported to possess a number of medicinal values. In Indian Traditional Systems of Medicine the fruit pulp of the plant is used as expectorant, liver tonic, stomachic and purgative. The present study has been carried out for the identification of the phytochemicals present in the fruits of Cucumis trigonus using GC-MS analysis. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus showed the presence of fourteen phytochemical constituents. The major chemical constituents are: demeclocycline, glycodeoxycholic acid, 3α,7α,12α -trihydroxycoprostanic acid, chlortetracycline, azafrin methyl ester, giganteumgenin N, phorbol 12,13-dihexanoate, astaxanthin, tetrahydrospirilloxanthin. These different phytochemical constituents have been found to possess a wide range of activities. Hence Cucumis trigonus may serve as candidate for the discovery of new drugs in the treatment of liver disorder.
Daratumumab improves the anti-myeloma effect of newly emerging multidrug therapies
Gopalakrishnan S,Tan D
Blood and Lymphatic Cancer: Targets and Therapy , 2013,
Abstract: Sathish Gopalakrishnan,1 Daryl Tan1,2 1Department of Hematology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; 2Raffles Cancer Center, Raffles Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore Abstract: Although the clinical outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma has improved tremendously with the advent of bortezomib and immunomodulatory drugs like thalidomide and lenalidomide, the disease remains incurable and patients will eventually be resistant to these drugs. Novel non-cross-resistant modalities of treatment are needed. Immunotherapy is potentially a very promising therapeutic modality for further development. Daratumumab is a novel, high-affinity, therapeutic human monoclonal antibody against a unique CD38 epitope. It induces tumor-cell killing through several immunological mechanisms. It has shown a favorable safety profile as monotherapy and significant single-agent activity in relapsed/refractory myeloma. It has also demonstrated strong synergism with lenalidomide and bortezomib. The potential of this agent, together with its pharmacokinetics, mode of action, early efficacy, and safety data will be detailed in this review. Keywords: daratumumab, myeloma, monoclonal
3D QSAR Studies of DAMNI Analogs as Possible Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
S. Ganguly,V. Gopalakrishnan
Journal of Chemistry , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/712930
Abstract:
Phononic band structure of honeycomb lattice with defects, using spectrally formulated finite element method
Sushovan Mukherjee,S. Gopalakrishnan
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A spectrally formulated finite element analysis based methodology has been proposed to calculate phononic band structure of reticulated honeycomb lattices having translationally invariant repetitive elements called unit cells. Bloch formulation captures dynamics of infinite structure through that of a unit cell. While conventional FEM is generally used for analyzing dynamics of such unit systems, here, constituent structural members are treated as 1D waveguide and modeled as Timoshenko beam frame element, enabling application of spectral FEM, suitable for accurately analyzing the dynamics, particularly efficient at very high frequencies. Using exact solutions as shape functions spares dense meshing. Resulting eigenvalue problem is solved by Wittrick-Williams method, an iterative scheme. Subsequently, band structures are obtained for supercells- units comprising multiple elemental unit cells; compared and reconciled with those obtained using elemental cell (termed primitive unit cell to distinguish from supercell). Primitive cell band structures are reconstructed from Supercell band structures. Supercell band structures show some spurious bands, which are explained in terms of band folding in the primitive cell band structure. Supercell allows treatment of defects as a periodic feature with certain defect density. Of particular observation in such band structures is the separation of bands, known as degeneracy breaking.
INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE) ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.)
J MARTIN RATHI,S GOPALAKRISHNAN
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C) and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAVES OF DESMODIUM GYRANS DC.
S.Gopalakrishnan,R. Rajameena
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Desmodium gyrans DC is one of the medicinally valuable plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as “Thozhukanni” in Tamil and ‘ Namaskari’ in Sanskrit. Traditionally leaves are used as antidote, cardiac-tonic and for wound healing. In the present study the ethanolic extract of Desmodium gyrans has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. Eighteen chemical constituents have been identified, The major chemical constituents are: 4,5-Dihydro-2-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-7-methyl-5-oxo- pyrano[3,2-c]pyran-3-carbonitrile (59.07%), Pentaborane (13.86%), Pentanedinitrile (6.63%) and 3-Chloro-1-butyne, (4.82%).
INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE) ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.)
MARTIN RATHI J.,S GOPALAKRISHNAN
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C) and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.
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