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A study of craniofacial anthropometrics in Hyderabad (Deccan)—and a review of literature
Nowsheen Khan,Vasanta Leela,Gopalakrishna Annavarapu
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The development of an anthropometric craniofacial data base is a necessary multidisciplinary initiative, and on anthropometry of the South-Indian face is inadequate. The purpose of this investigation is to obtain average parameters that define the soft tissue facial profile of the investigated population in order to provide an important reference for community, security, social and medical applications. In this pilot study, the faces of 40 young adults were studied with standardized photography and measurements, and the data collated to determine averages for the Deccan region ethnic sub-set. This data-set has been compared and contrasted with others in literature.
Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids
Srinivas Annavarapu, Vikas Nanda
BMC Structural Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6807-9-61
Abstract: Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus.By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.Solid phase chemical synthesis allows for the incorporation of non-natural amino acids into polypeptides[1]. The field has developed rapidly, permitting the construction of synthetic, protein-sized molecules. This has allowed protein chemists to explore the physical and biological effects of varying amino acid stereochemistry. A dramatic example was the chemical synthesis of the ninety-nine amino acid long HIV-1 protease from both L and D-amino acids[2]. The resulting enantiomeric molecules were both well-folded and specifically active on a protease substrate of the same respective amino acid chirality as the enzyme. In this study, we use the Protein Data Base (PDB) as a source of structural information for specific D-amino acid sidechain interactions with α-helical backbones.Much of the work on the role of variable stereochemistry on structure and stability has been conducted on short peptides [3,4]. This work has been motivated by natural examples of polypeptides that combine L and D amino acids. The antimicrobial toxin, gramicidin, is a well studied example of such a molecule, containing alternating L and D amino acids. This allows it to adopt the β-helix, a novel secondary struct
Centrality of Lowdin orthogonalizations
Annavarapu Ramesh Naidu
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The different orthogonal relationships that exists in the Lowdin orthogonalizations is presented. Other orthogonalization techniques such as polar decomposition (PD), principal component analysis (PCA) and reduced singular value decomposition (SVD) can be derived from Lowdin methods. It is analytically shown that the polar decomposition is presented in the symmetric orthogonalization; principal component analysis and singular value decomposition are in the canonical orthogonalization. The canonical orthogonalization can be brought in into the form of reduced SVD or vice-versa. The analytic relation between symmetric and canonical orthogonalization methods is established. The inter-relationship between symmetric orthogonalization and singular value decomposition is presented.
Electrospinning Composite Nanofibers of Cellulose
Hamsini Gopalakrishna
JPUR : Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research , 2012,
Abstract:
CyberKnife: A new paradigm in radiotherapy
Kurup Gopalakrishna
Journal of Medical Physics , 2010,
Abstract:
Condition-Based Maintenance using Sensor Arrays and Telematics
Gopalakrishna Palem
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5121/ijmnct.2013.3303
Abstract: Emergence of uniquely addressable embeddable devices has raised the bar on Telematics capabilities. Though the technology itself is not new, its application has been quite limited until now. Sensor based telematics technologies generate volumes of data that are orders of magnitude larger than what operators have dealt with previously. Real-time big data computation capabilities have opened the flood gates for creating new predictive analytics capabilities into an otherwise simple data log systems, enabling real-time control and monitoring to take preventive action in case of any anomalies. Condition-based-maintenance, usage-based-insurance, smart metering and demand-based load generation etc. are some of the predictive analytics use cases for Telematics. This paper presents the approach of condition-based maintenance using real-time sensor monitoring, Telematics and predictive data analytics.
Automatic detection of multiple oriented blood vessels in retinal images  [PDF]
P. C. Siddalingaswamy, K. Gopalakrishna Prabhu
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.31015
Abstract: Automatic segmentation of the vasculature in retinal images is important in the detection of diabetic retinopathy that affects the morphology of the blood vessel tree. In this paper, a hybrid method for efficient segmentation of multiple oriented blood vessels in colour retinal images is proposed. Initially, the appearance of the blood vessels are enhanced and background noise is suppressed with the set of real component of a complex Gabor filters. Then the vessel pixels are detected in the vessel enhanced image using entropic thresholding based on gray level co-occurrence matrix as it takes into account the spatial distribution of gray levels and preserving the spatial structures. The performance of the method is illustrated on two sets of retinal images from publicly available DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction) and Hoover’s databases. For DRIVE database, the blood vessels are detected with sensitivity of 86.47±3.6 (Mean±SD) and specificity of 96±1.01.
A status report on management of cleft lip and palate in India
Gopalakrishna A,Agrawal Karoon
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: This national survey on the management of cleft lip and palate (CLP) in India is the first of its kind. Objective: To collect basic data on the management of patients with CLP in India for further evaluation. Materials and Methods: A proforma was designed and sent to all the surgeons treating CLP in India. It was publicized through internet, emails, post and through personal communication. Subjects: 293 cleft surgeons representing 112 centers responded to the questionnaire. Most of the forms were filled up by personal interview. Results: The cleft workload of the participating centers is between 10 and 2000 surgeries annually. These centers collectively perform 32,500-34,700 primary and secondary cleft surgeries every year. The responses were analyzed using Microsoft excel and 112 as the sample size. Most surgeons are repairing cleft lip between 3-6 months and cleft palate between 6 months to 1 year. Millard and Tennison repairs form the mainstay of lip repair. Multiple techniques are used for palate repair. Presurgical orthopedics, lip adhesion, nasendoscopy, speech therapy, video-fluoroscopy and orthognathic surgery were not always available and in some cases not availed of even when available. Conclusion: Management of CLP differs in India. Primary surgical practices are almost similar to other studies. There is a lack of interdisciplinary approach in majority of the centers, and hence, there is a need for better interaction amongst the specialists. A more comprehensive study with an improved questionnaire would be desirable.
Inflatable Indian travel pillow as a pneumatic patient jack
Gopalakrishna A,Agrawal Karoon
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2006,
Abstract: The Indian travel pillow readily available in the market has been utilized as a patient jack in the operation theatre. This has been used to raise the shoulders of an anaesthetized patient for surgery in the head and neck region and a set of two pillows have been used to prop-up a prone anaesthetized patient. This allows smooth positioning of the patient after intubation without disturbance to the airway with minimal manpower.
Serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels in oral cancer
Prabhu Krishnananda,Bhat Gopalakrishna
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2007,
Abstract: We conducted a study wherein serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels were measured in patients (n = 27) with various stages of biopsy proven oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) and age and sex matched healthy human volunteers (n=10). In all patients with oral cancer, serum total glutathione-s-transferase was measured before the onset of treatment. There was a significant increase in serum total glutathione-s-transferse levels in patients with stage IV oral cancer as compared to stage II (P = 0.001) and stage III (P = 0.002) oral cancer. This shows that alterations in serum total Glutathione-s-transferase levels may have a role in cancer progression.
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