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Performance Comparison of PIN and APD based FSO Satellite Systems for various Pulse Modulation Schemes in Atmospheric Turbulence  [PDF]
Pooja Gopal, V. K. Jain, Subrat Kar
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B2038
Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of various Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) schemes has been analysed for PIN and APD receivers in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. It is observed that the performance of the APD receiver is always better than that of the PIN receiver as expected. Among the various modulation schemes, the performance of Differential Amplitude PPM (DAPPM) scheme with more number of amplitude levels is better than that of the other schemes for the same single level peak amplitude. Further, the optimum gain of APD receiver does not change substantially for different modulation schemes and turbulent conditions.

Some Memorable Points of Automobile and Transport
Dengale Gopal V.
International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews , 2012,
Abstract: Road network and its standard indicate the status symbol of the city. Road transport is under stress dueto lot of accidents, death, noise & air pollution, traffic jam & create so many problems. Transport is thelifeline or as important as blood circulation in human body, for the people and the goods to moveacross a country. In surface transport road transport playing central role.First automobile accident occurred on 30th May 1896 in New York City when a car collided with abicycle and broke Ms. Thomas leg. The first fatal accident however was reported in London on Feb 26,1899 when the care driver met with an accident while negotiating a turn in Grove hill.Large accident on 13th September 1971 in England in once accident 200 vehicles involved but only 11person died & 60 persons injured. The worst accident in India occurred on 16th March 1988 nearRaipur (Madhya Pradesh) when a bus carrying a marriage party caught fire and felt in ditch & 130passengers killed out of 150.The first working steam powered vehicle likely to have been designed byFerdinand Verbiest in china around 1672. It was 65 cm long scale model. Nicolas Joseph build the firstself propelled mechanical vehicle in about 1769 he created steam powered tricycle.
Accidents Brings Tears, Safety Brings Cheers! (Road Accident –Or- Safety: - Key Person Behind The Steering Wheel)
Dengale Gopal V.
International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews , 2012,
Abstract: ‘Transport’ is the lifeline or as important as blood circulation in human body, for the people and thegoods to move across a country. In surface transport road transport playing central role. Roadnetwork and its standard indicate the status symbol of the city. Road transport is under stress due to lotof accidents, death, noise & air pollution, traffic jam & create so many problems.“Road safety” has already emerged as a major social and economical concern in India. More than1,20,000 persons died due to accident in every year. Near about 3 lacs people suffered from injuries.30% of them get impact for lifetime. This figure going to increase each & every year accident switchoff the light in between so many families for their future.Thousand of economically active persons are killed by the accident and road safety is causing greatanxiety in today’s social system accidents became a serious health hazard. Motor vehicle populationincreasing by 9-10 %. each year. Road length is not increasing in that proportion.
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS CONTAINING NON- SEDATING ANTIHISTAMINE
Jayadev Patil,Vishwajith V,Gopal.V
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: Various formulations of Loratadine Chewable tablets containing different pharmaceutical compositions with simple manufacturing procedures were developed by using different excipients. The excipients used here are Lactose, Mannitol, Ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, Maize Starch, Citric Acid, Aspartame, Colloidal silicon dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, D & C Yellow No 10 and Raspberry flavour. Oral chewable tablets are the most preferred among the conventional dosage forms due to its aesthetic appeal and ease of administering to children, which has entered the market. Loratadine is formulated into chewable tablets by wet granulation method using suitable excipients as mentioned earlier, which are evaluated by using simple analytical equipments. The chewable tablet was better presented using artificial sweetener Aspartame and Raspberry flavour as flavouring agent. The chewable tablets are prepared to ensure that they are easily crushed by chewing. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability; drug content and mouth feel along with in-vitro dissolution. As per monograph, the chewable tablets are not required to comply with disintegration test. Wet granulation process using Mannitol, Lactose, Micro crystalline cellulose (Avicel-CE 15), Ethyl cellulose and Sweeteners and Flavors were found to be simple and robust method to prepare chewable tablets.
Analysis of Auditory Measures in Normal Hearing Young Male Adult Cigarette Smokers Using Multiple Variable Selection Methods with Predictive Validation Assessments
Kamakshi V. Gopal,Richard Herrington,Jacquelin Pearce
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/745151
Abstract: Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for hearing loss; however, no information is available on auditory preclinical indicators in young chronic cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking involves exposure to many harmful chemicals including carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, the CO level in 16 young normal hearing male chronic smokers was measured with a CO monitor, and was used as the outcome measure. Subjects were administered a battery of audiological tests that included behavioral and electrophysiologic measures. The goal was to investigate which auditory test measures can be used as potential predictors of the outcome measure. Using ordinary least squares estimation procedures with best-subsets selection and bootstrapped stepwise variable selection procedures, an optimal predictive multiple linear regression model was selected. Results of this approach indicated that auditory brainstem response peak V amplitudes and distortion product otoacoustic emissions had the highest predictive value and accounted for most of the variability.
Adsorption of fluoride ions onto naturally occurring earth materials
M Karthikeyan, V Gopal, KP Elango
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: Batch sorption system using two naturally occurring earth materials (EM) as adsorbents was investigated to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The system variables studied include initial concentration of the sorbate, agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH, co-ions and temperature. The experimental data fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm. The amount of fluoride ions adsorbed per unit mass of the adsorbent was found to be 0.011 and 0.007 mg/g, at 30 °C from 4 mg/L fluoride solution, for EM1 and EM2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° were calculated which indicates that the removal of fluoride ions is an endothermic process. Kinetic studies reveal that the adsorption follows reversible first order kinetics. X-ray diffraction patterns of the adsorbents before and after adsorption and Dubinin-Radushkevick (D-R) isotherm indicate that the adsorption of fluoride ions onto these materials is a physisorption process. @ JASEM J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. December, 2010, Vol. 14 (4) 90 - 95
Qualitative Analysis Model for Software Requirements Driven by Interviews
Haidar S. Jabbar,T.V. Gopal
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Despite the recent precision of Software Engineering (SE), software systems still suffer from foremost problems, which are constantly referenced to Requirements Engineering (RE). RE is both the hardest and most critical part of software development, since errors at RE stage postponement to the end of the software development process and the hardest to repair. One of the major problems in RE is the analysis and interpretation of data driven by interviews, in view of the fact that most data comes in narrative, text, story and informal shape, which is generally called qualitative data. As well as data comes in mass appearance, which is later difficult to interpret to software requirements. In this study we have offered a brief overview of RE, interviews and qualitative models. Originally, we have offer a key improvement in the analysis of interviews, by proposing a Bottom-Up Qualitative Analysis Model (BUQAM) for enhancing the analysis of data driven by interviews, consequently well interpretation to software requirements. The BUQAM consist of the following steps: (1) Focused Oriented Questions (2) Organizing and Identifying Data (Familiarization) (3) Iterative Coding and Pattern Categorizing (4) Requirements Mapping and Classification and (5) Requirements Generation. We argue that this model will renovate most of narrative (descriptive) data into interpretive (clear-cut) information. In the same time, this model can furthermore be used in several types of narrative data such as ethnographic studies, action videos, observations, note files and surveys. In order to clarify our assumptions, we have validated this method against a case study for developing a University Wireless Network System (UWNS).
User Centered Design for Adaptive E-Learning Systems
S. Jabbar Haidar,T.V. Gopal
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: As the recent focus of using E-Learning Systems (eS`s) has been increased and Internet has become more accessible, the quandary of designing efficient eS`s becomes more severe. The diversity of users within a group, sharing an eS having their individual abilities, interests and needs challenge the designers of an eS`s with heterogeneous needs for Adaptive User Interfaces (AUI`s). These tribulations of designing eS`s resulted in the creating of Adaptive E-Learning Systems (AeS`s) which serve a specific set of user characteristics, in which the system or the user render its components and interface according to different requirements. This study has offered a brief overview of the eS`s and the AUI`s. In the same time we have pointed out existing and major problems for the designing of eS`s. Hence we have conducted a research study for the profiling of eS students from three different countries UK, India and Iraq. In particular we have explored the collected data and what it tells us about the implications and variability of designing AeS`s. Subsequently from this study we made an exhaustive conclusion followed by usability requirements summary, which indicates the required usability level for each country. Findings show that the differences in the general, user and usability characteristics of the students profiles, can principally affect the designing of eS`s. Eventually from the derived analysis and conclusion, we argue that AUI`s is a major component and the core of AeS`s and there is an existent need for precisely defining user profiles by following a user centered approach.
A bad back needs help
Gopal V,Robbins RA,Gotway MB
Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care , 2011,
Abstract: No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …
The Science behind Biomaterials in Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery
Kaytan V. Amrute,Gopal H. Badlani
The Scientific World Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2009.7
Abstract:
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