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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14897 matches for " Gopal Singh "
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Mass Foliar Damage at Subalpine-Timberline Ecotone in Western Himalaya Due to Extreme Climatic Events  [PDF]
Ishwari Datt Rai, Bhupendra Singh Adhikari, Gopal Singh Rawat
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.12008
Abstract: Glimpses of unusual climatic conditions such as high summer temperature, heavy rainfall as well as snowfall and low winter temperature were noticed during 2010-2011 in subalpine-timberline (2700 - 3600 m) zones of Western Himalaya. Abundant winter injury to the current year (2010) foliage and shoot of Rhododendron arboretum and Quercus semecarpifolia became apparent in winters of 2010-2011. The foliar and bud mortality both increased with elevation beyond 2800 m and maximum along the edges of forest. Rhododendron campanulatum was another species which also got affected throughout the Western Himalaya. Such events were not reported earlier from the region and current observations indicate the high sensitivity of the plant species to the extreme inter-annual climatic variations.
Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Tarun Dalal,Gopal Singh
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS). There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS) protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.
An Analysis of ASRP Secure Routing Protocol for MANET
Tarun Dalal,Gopal Singh
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2012,
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can be defined as a collection of large number of mobile nodes that form temporary network without aid of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. Each node participating in the network, acts both as host and a router and must therefore is willing to forward packets for other nodes. The characteristics of MANET provides large amount of degree of freedom and self-organizing capability that make it completely different from other network. Due to this nature of MANET, design and development of secure routing is challenging task for researcher in an open and distributed communication environments. The main work of this paper is to address the security issue, because MANET is generally more vulnerable to various attacks, so we proposed a secure routing protocol for MANET, named ASRP (Authenticate Secure Routing Protocol) based on DSDV (Destination- sequence distance vector). This protocol is designed to protect the network from malicious and selfish nodes. We are implementing Extended Public key Cryptography mechanism in ASRP in order to achieve security goals.
Degree of approximation of conjugate of Lip $ alpha$ class function by $ {K^lambda}$-summability means of conjugate series of a Fourier series
Shyam Lal,Gopal Krishna Singh
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2003, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.34.2003.387-394
Abstract: In this paper the degree of approximation of conjugate of a function belonging to Lip $ alpha$ class by $ K^lambda$-summability means of conjugate series of its Fourier series has been determined.
Topical beta blockers and ocular tension in human eyes
Singh Y,Das Gopal,Bharti
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1982,
Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species Diversity in Different Oak (Quercus spp.) Dominated Forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India
Gajendra SINGH,Gopal S. RAWAT
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2012,
Abstract: Himalayan broad-leaved forests are mainly dominated by oak (Quercus spp.) species. Oak species with other tree species provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as lifeline for local inhabitants. Overall tree diversity and their status in different oak dominated forests viz., Quercus leucotrichophora (1500-2200 m), Q. floribunda (2201-2700 m) and Q. semecarpifolia (2701-3300 m) were studied in Garhwal, Himalaya. A total of 54 tree species (40 genera) in Q. leucotrichophora, 43 tree species (30 genera) in Q. floribunda and 23 tree species (16 genera) in Q. semecarpifolia dominated forests were recorded. Lauraceae was the dominant family in Q. leucotrichophora and Q. floribunda forests (6 and 8 species respectively), while Ericaceae (3 species) was the dominant family in Q. semecarpifolia dominated forests. Pinaceae and Taxaceae were only two gymnospermic family represented by Pinus roxburghii at low, Abies pinrow at mid, Abies spectabilis and Taxus wallichiana at higher elevational oak forests. There was no significant variation (p=0.8) between overall tree density in different oak forests which ranges from 337±51 individual/ha in Q. semecarpifolia to 433±92 individual/ha in Q. leucotrichophora forests. The seedling density has significant variation (p=0.01) in different oak forests where highest density was recorded in Q. leucotrichophora forests (1981 individual/ha) and lowest in Q. semecarpifolia forests (348 individual/ha). The Total Basal Area (TBA) reported from Q. leucotrichophora (88.06 m2/ha) and Q. floribunda (110.5 m2/ha) forests was higher than those of earlier reported from the region, while basal area of Q. semecarpifolia (90.16 m2/ha) was comparable with the forests of western Himalaya.
Transforming Development with Grassroots Planning in Madhya Pradesh, India
Yogesh Mahor,Ram Gopal Singh
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance , 2012, DOI: 10.5130/cjlg.v0i0.3062
Abstract: There is growing acknowledgment that state interactions must take place in a democratic context. This has been accompanied by attempts to foster forms of democratic governance that provide scope for citizen participation in the development process. However, due to vast inter- and intra-country differences, no single model has emerged for countries to follow, even if each effort has contributed to further deliberation and discussion. A major challenge to successful implementation has been the absence of an effective and practical framework to ensure decentralization. In the state Madhya Pradesh of India, the democratic reform has progressed from conceptualization to mobilization to institutionalization. For the first time in Madhya Pradesh's development history, state government has shown the courage to interact with communities in making village-level development plans. The Madhya Pradesh Planning Commission has created a tangible plan for working more closely with communities. This paper outlines the nature of this initiative and analyses the adequacy of the framework for decentralizsation and the mechanism of governance adopted by the Madhya Pradesh government for achieving the goal of participatory democracy. In particular, the paper assesses the state model of decentralized planning, its operational framework, and ongoing efforts. It also presents the status of village-level planning in the state, including how villages are interacting with one another and with government entities outside the state.
Health Improvements Have Been More Rapid and Widespread in China than in India: A Comparative Analysis of Health and Socioeconomic Trends from 1960 to 2011
Gopal K. Singh, PhD,Jihong Liu, ScD
International Journal of MCH and AIDS , 2012,
Abstract: ObjectivesWe examined differences between China and India in key health and socioeconomic indicators, including life expectancy, infant and child mortality, non-communicable disease mortality from cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and diabetes, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, material living conditions, and health expenditure.MethodsData on health and social indicators came from various World Health Organization and United Nations databases on global health and development statistics, including the GLOBOCAN cancer database. Mortality trends were modeled by log-linear regression, and differences in rates and relative risks were tested for statistical significance.ResultsAlthough both countries have made marked improvements, India lags behind China on several key health indicators. Differential rates of mortality decline during 1960-2009 have led to a widening health gap between China and India. In 2009 the infant mortality rate in India was 50 deaths per 1,000 live births, 3 times greater than the rate for China. Sixty-six out of 1,000 Indian children died before reaching their 5th birthday, compared with 19 children in China. China’s life expectancy is 9 years longer than India’s. Life expectancy at birth in India increased from 42 years in 1960 to 65 years in 2009, while life expectancy in China increased from 47 years in 1960 to 74 years in 2009. Major health concerns for China include high rates of stomach, liver, and lung cancer, CVD, and smoking prevalence. Globally, India ranked 90th and China 102nd in life satisfaction.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:India’s less favorable health profile compared to China is largely attributable to its higher rates of mortality from communicable diseases and maternal and perinatal conditions. Further health gains can be achieved by reducing social inequality, greater investments in human development and health services, and by prevention and control of chronic-disease risks such as hypertension, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity.
Massive peripapillary retinal haemorrahge in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Varghese Mary,Singh Shirin,Gopal Santhan
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2004,
Image Processing based Heuristic Analysis for Enhanced Currency Recognition
Parminder Singh Reel,Gopal Krishan,Smarti Kotwal
International Journal of Advancements in Technology , 2011,
Abstract: A successful approach for currency recognition depends upon feature extraction of that currency image. This paper represents the heuristic analysis of characters and digits of serial number of Indian currency notes to recognition of currency notes. To recognize a character from a given currency image, there is a need to extract feature descriptors of such image. As an extraction method significantly affects the quality of whole OCR process, it is very important to extract features, which will be invariant towards the various light conditions, used font type and deformations of characters caused by a skew of the image. Heuristic analysis of characters is done for this purpose to get the accurate features of characters before feature extraction in currency recognition.
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