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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150769 matches for " Gopal K. Singh "
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Health Improvements Have Been More Rapid and Widespread in China than in India: A Comparative Analysis of Health and Socioeconomic Trends from 1960 to 2011
Gopal K. Singh, PhD,Jihong Liu, ScD
International Journal of MCH and AIDS , 2012,
Abstract: ObjectivesWe examined differences between China and India in key health and socioeconomic indicators, including life expectancy, infant and child mortality, non-communicable disease mortality from cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and diabetes, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, material living conditions, and health expenditure.MethodsData on health and social indicators came from various World Health Organization and United Nations databases on global health and development statistics, including the GLOBOCAN cancer database. Mortality trends were modeled by log-linear regression, and differences in rates and relative risks were tested for statistical significance.ResultsAlthough both countries have made marked improvements, India lags behind China on several key health indicators. Differential rates of mortality decline during 1960-2009 have led to a widening health gap between China and India. In 2009 the infant mortality rate in India was 50 deaths per 1,000 live births, 3 times greater than the rate for China. Sixty-six out of 1,000 Indian children died before reaching their 5th birthday, compared with 19 children in China. China’s life expectancy is 9 years longer than India’s. Life expectancy at birth in India increased from 42 years in 1960 to 65 years in 2009, while life expectancy in China increased from 47 years in 1960 to 74 years in 2009. Major health concerns for China include high rates of stomach, liver, and lung cancer, CVD, and smoking prevalence. Globally, India ranked 90th and China 102nd in life satisfaction.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:India’s less favorable health profile compared to China is largely attributable to its higher rates of mortality from communicable diseases and maternal and perinatal conditions. Further health gains can be achieved by reducing social inequality, greater investments in human development and health services, and by prevention and control of chronic-disease risks such as hypertension, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity.
The Impact of Ethnic-Immigrant Status and Obesity-Related Risk Factors on Behavioral Problems among US Children and Adolescents
Gopal K. Singh,Stella M. Yu
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/648152
The Impact of Ethnic-Immigrant Status and Obesity-Related Risk Factors on Behavioral Problems among US Children and Adolescents
Gopal K. Singh,Stella M. Yu
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/648152
Abstract: We examined the prevalence and correlates of parent-reported behavioral problems among immigrants and US-born children aged 6–17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to develop an 11-item factor-based behavioral problems index (BPI) and a dichotomous serious behavioral problems (SBP) measure. Logistic and least-squares regression and disparity indices were used to analyze differentials. BPI scores varied from 92.3 for immigrant Asian children to ≥102.4 for native Hispanic and Black children. The prevalence of SBP ranged from 2.9% for immigrant Asian children to 17.0% for native Black children. Children in most ethnic-immigrant groups had higher adjusted levels of behavioral problems than immigrant Asian children. Native Hispanic children, native and immigrant White children, immigrant Black children, and native Asian children had ≥3.0 times higher adjusted odds of SBP than immigrant Asian children. Lower socioeconomic status, obesity, physical inactivity, lack of sports participation, increased television viewing, and sleep disruption were associated with greater behavioral problems. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors accounted for 37.0% and 48.5% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in BPI and SBP, respectively. Immigrant children had fewer behavioral problems than native-born children. Policies aimed at modifying obesity-related behaviors and social environment may lead to improved behavioral/emotional health in both immigrant and native children. 1. Introduction Behavioral and emotional problems in children have significant impacts on their health and wellbeing [1–4]. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are more likely to have poor academic performance, to repeat a grade in school, to face school suspension, and to develop behavioral and mental health problems in adulthood and are less likely to engage in social activities outside of school [1–4]. Evidence also suggests that emotional and behavioral problems in children have an adverse effect on their parents’ mental health and subjective wellbeing and are associated with increased levels of parental and familial stress [1, 2, 5]. A number of studies have analyzed gender, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic variations in children’s mental health and behavioral problems [3–9]. However, few studies have examined the impact of nativity/immigrant status, obesity, and obesity-related risk factors on behavioral outcomes among children [10–13]. Moreover, most previous studies on ethnic and social determinants have focused on either internalizing (depression, anxiety, and
Rising Prevalence and Neighborhood, Social, and Behavioral Determinants of Sleep Problems in US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2012
Gopal K. Singh,Mary Kay Kenney
Sleep Disorders , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/394320
Abstract: We examined trends and neighborhood and sociobehavioral determinants of sleep problems in US children aged 6–17 between 2003 and 2012. The 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 rounds of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used to estimate trends and differentials in sleep problems using logistic regression. Prevalence of sleep problems increased significantly over time. The proportion of children with <7 days/week of adequate sleep increased from 31.2% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2011-2012, whereas the prevalence of adequate sleep <5 days/week rose from 12.6% in 2003 to 13.6% in 2011-2012. Prevalence of sleep problems varied in relation to neighborhood socioeconomic and built-environmental characteristics (e.g., safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter, vandalism, sidewalks, and parks/playgrounds). Approximately 10% of children in neighborhoods with the most-favorable social environment had serious sleep problems, compared with 16.2% of children in neighborhoods with the least-favorable social environment. Children in neighborhoods with the fewest health-promoting amenities or the greatest social disadvantage had 37%–43% higher adjusted odds of serious sleep problems than children in the most-favorable neighborhoods. Higher levels of screen time, physical inactivity, and secondhand smoke exposure were associated with 20%–47% higher adjusted odds of sleep problems. Neighborhood conditions and behavioral factors are important determinants of sleep problems in children. 1. Introduction Sleep problems in children have significant impacts on their health and well-being [1–4]. Inadequate sleep in children has been shown to be associated with poor academic performance, behavioral problems, poor mental and physical health, obesity and weight gain, alcohol use, accidents, and injuries [1–15]. Research also suggests that these adverse health effects vary in relation to the amount or duration of sleep problems [2–6, 12–15]. The US data show that, compared to children and adolescents who do not experience any sleep problems during the week, those who experience inadequate sleep during the entire week have 3-4 times higher risks of serious behavioral problems, 4-5 times higher risks of depression and anxiety, 2.5 times higher risk of ADD/ADHD, 3.2 times higher risk of migraine headaches, 1.5 times higher risk of being in fair/poor overall health, 1.6 times higher risk of repeating a grade or having a problem at school, and 2.8 times higher risk of missing >2 weeks of school during a year [16–18]. Past research has examined the impact of a number of sociodemographic and
Dramatic Increases in Obesity and Overweight Prevalence among Asian Subgroups in the United States, 1992–2011
Gopal K. Singh,Sue C. Lin
ISRN Preventive Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/898691
Abstract: We examined trends in adult obesity and overweight prevalence among major Asian/Pacific Islander (API) subgroups and the non-Hispanic whites from 1992 to 2011. Using 1992–2011 National Health Interview Surveys, obesity, overweight, and BMI differentials were analyzed by logistic, linear, and log-linear regression. Between 1992 and 2011, obesity prevalence doubled for the Chinese, the Asian Indians, the Japanese, and the Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders; and tripled for the Filipinos. Obesity prevalence among API adults tripled from 3.7% in 1992 to 13.3% in 2010, and overweight prevalence doubled from 23.2% to 43.1%. Immigrants in each API subgroup had lower prevalence than their US-born counterparts, with immigrants’ obesity and overweight risks increasing with increasing duration of residence. During 2006–2011, obesity prevalence ranged from 3.3% for Chinese immigrants to 22.3% for the US-born Filipinos and 41.1% for the Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. The Asian Indians, the Filipinos, and the Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders had, respectively, 3.1, 3.8, and 10.9 times higher odds of obesity than those of the Chinese adults. Compared with Chinese immigrants, the adjusted odds of obesity were 3.5–4.6 times higher for the US-born Chinese and the foreign-born Filipinos, 9 times higher for the US-born Filipinos and whites, 3.8–5.5 times higher for the US-born and foreign-born Asian Indians, and 21.9 times higher for the Native Hawaiians. Substantial ethnic heterogeneity and rising prevalence underscore the need for increased monitoring of obesity and obesity-related risk factors among API subgroups. 1. Introduction Adult obesity rates have increased dramatically in the United States, with the prevalence having risen more than twofold during the past 35 years [1]. Marked increases in obesity prevalence have occurred among both males and females and across all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups [1–3]. Due to high prevalence, a rapidly increasing trend, large racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities, and an unfavorable international ranking, current obesity levels in both children and adults are seen as a major public health problem in the USA [1–5]. While trend and current data on obesity for US adults are routinely available for such major racial/ethnic groups as the whites, the blacks, and the Hispanics [1, 6], prevalence estimates for specific Asian/Pacific Islander (API) subgroups are less well analyzed, particularly temporal obesity patterns among them [2]. Only a few studies have examined obesity differentials among APIs at the national level [2,
Obesity and dyslipidemia
AK Singh,S K Singh, N Singh, N Agrawal , K Gopal
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Obesity is an excessive accumulation of energy in the form of body fat which impairs health. The main cause of obesity epidemic is clear: overeating, especially that of foods, which are rich in fats, extracted sugars or refined starches. This combined with decline in physical activity results in an imbalance of intake and expenditure of calories, resulting in excess weight and eventually obesity. Co-morbidities commonly associated with obesity include diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, dyslipidemia, degenerative joint disease, stress incontinence and some form of tumors and other various diseases. Dyslipidemia is a widely accepted risk factor for coronary artery disease and is an important feature of metabolic syndrome. Obesity especially visceral obesity causes insulin resistance and is associated with dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism, and hypertension all of which exacerbate atherosclerosis. The primary dyslipidemia related to obesity is characterized by increased triglycerides, decreased high density lipoprotein levels and abnormal low density lipoprotein composition. Weight loss and exercise, even if they do not result in normalization of body weight, can improve this dyslipidemia and thus reduce cardiovascular risk. In addition, obese individuals needed to be targeted for intense lipid lowering therapy, when necessary.
Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I—All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II—Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers
Gopal K. Singh,Shanita D. Williams,Mohammad Siahpush,Aaron Mulhollen
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/107497
Abstract: We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003–2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment. 1. Part I 1.1. Introduction Monitoring socioeconomic, racial, and geographic disparities in health, disease, and mortality has been the focus of epidemiologic and public health research in the US ever since the launch of the first comprehensive national health initiative in health promotion and disease prevention in 1979 [1, 2]. Previous research has shown the dynamic nature of social disparities in cancer mortality as the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality from major cancers has changed markedly during the past 5 decades [3–5]. For example, area socioeconomic patterns in US mortality from all cancers combined and lung cancer reversed between 1950 and 1998, with those in more deprived groups in the recent period experiencing higher mortality risks than their more affluent counterparts [3–5]. In the 1950s and 1960s, cancer mortality rates were substantially higher for those in more affluent groups [3, 4]. The reversal in patterns occurred largely as a result of faster increases in mortality among those in lower SES groups and faster and earlier reductions in mortality among higher SES groups [3–5]. The pattern of association between cancer mortality and SES, whether measured at the individual or area level, has been shown to vary for specific cancers [3–14]. Contemporary data indicate that higher SES is associated with lower rates of lung, stomach, cervical, esophageal, oropharyngeal, and
Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS
Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN,Gopal K. Singh, PhD
International Journal of MCH and AIDS , 2012,
Abstract: One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA), we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.
Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals
Anuradha K,Singh H,Gopal KVT,Rama Rao G
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ′P′ was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females) of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ′P′ value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49%) as compared to normal controls (22%) was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.
In Silico Characterization of Histidine Acid Phytase Sequences
Vinod Kumar,Gopal Singh,A. K. Verma,Sanjeev Agrawal
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/845465
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