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Probiotic-assisted colon-specific delivery of diclofenac sodium from guar gum matrix tablets: In vitro evaluation
Ghosh Prashant,Gupta Vipin,Gondoliya Bhavik,Rathore Mahendra
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose : The aim of present work was to investigate the in vitro release profile of diclofenac sodium from matrix tablets, which were prepared using guar gum with and without probiotics. Methods : Six matrix tablets formulations (F1-F6) of diclofenac sodium containing varying proportions of guar gum, 10-60% of tablet weight were prepared by wet granulation method and evaluated in vitro for their release profile. Four matrix tablets formulations (F7-F10) of diclofenac with guar gum (40%) were prepared incorporating varying concentration of commercial spores of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium species that are commonly found in colon microflora. Results : The tablets having same concentration of guar gum without probiotics (F4) showed a 54.47% cumulative release of diclofenac after 24 hr while that in presence of probiotics (F9) was 73.01%. These drug release studies were conducted without rat caecal content. In another set of experiments, the drug release studies were carried out in presence of rat caecal content. In such experiments, more than 95% drug was released from F4 and F9 formulations after 24 hr. Conclusion : The results showed that commercial probiotics are capable in digesting guar gum. These probiotics may be used to assist in colon delivery of drugs from formulations prepared with guar gum.
Controlled Release of Doxorubicin from Doxorubicin/-Polyglutamic Acid Ionic Complex
Bhavik Manocha,Argyrios Margaritis
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/780171
Abstract: Formation of drug/polymer complexes through ionic interactions has proven to be very effective for the controlled release of drugs. The stability of such drug/polymer ionic complexes can be greatly influenced by solution pH and ionic strength. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the potential of -polyglutamic acid (-PGA) as a carrier for the anticancer drug, Doxorubicin (DOX). We investigated the formation of ionic complexes between -PGA and DOX using scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Our studies demonstrate that DOX specifically interacts with -PGA forming random colloidal aggregates and results in almost 100% complexation efficiency. In vitro drug release studies illustrated that these complexes were relatively stable at neutral pH but dissociates slowly under acidic pH environments, facilitating a pH-triggered release of DOX from the complex. Hydrolytic degradation of -PGA and DOX/-PGA complex was also evaluated in physiological buffer. In conclusion, these studies clearly showed the feasibility of -PGA to associate cationic drug such as DOX and that is may serve as a new drug carrier for the controlled release of DOX in malignant tissues.
Comparison Shopping Agents and Online Price Dispersion: A Search Cost based Explanation
Pathak,Bhavik K;
Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-18762012000100006
Abstract: search costs and consumer heterogeneity are two important explanations for the price dispersion in the brick and mortar (b&m) markets. comparison shopping agents (csas) provide a single click decision support for consumers' purchasing related decision problems and reduce their search costs by providing detail price dispersion related information. contemporary researchers in is observe that even with such negligible search costs, price dispersion still continues in the online markets. consumer heterogeneity and retailer heterogeneity have been agreed upon as two primary explanations for online price dispersions. in this paper, popular csas are analyzed to check if they provide complete and accurate price dispersion information. it is shown that because of the selection bias and temporal delay in updating information, contemporary csas may not present complete and accurate price dispersion information. in order to reach to an optimal purchasing decision, consumers may have to rely on a sequential search across multiple csas or browse through various retailers. this research adds a search cost dimension to explain the continuance of price dispersion in the online markets.
Complex CKM matrix, spontaneous CP violation and generalized $\mu$-$\tau$ symmetry
Joshipura, Anjan S.;Kodrani, Bhavik P.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2008.11.007
Abstract: The multi-Higgs models having spontaneous CP violation (SPCV) and natural flavor conservation (NFC) lead to a real CKM matrix $V$ contradicting current evidence in favour of a complex $V$. This contradiction can be removed by using a generalized $\mu$-$\tau$ (called 23) symmetry in place of the discrete symmetry conventionally used to obtain NFC. If 23 symmetry is exact then the Higgs induced flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) vanish as in case of NFC. 23 breaking introduces SPCV, a phase in $V$ and suppressed FCNC among quarks. The FCNC couplings $F_{ij}^{d,u}$ between $i$ and $j$ generations show a hierarchy $|F_{12}^{d,u}|<|F_{13}^{d,u}|<|F_{23}^{d,u}|$ with the result that the FCNC can have observable consequences in $B$ mixing without conflicting with the $K^0-\bar{K}^0$ mixing. Detailed fits to the quark masses and the CKM matrix are used to obtain the (complex) couplings $F_{ij}^d$ and $F_{ij}^u$. Combined constraints from flavour and CP violations in the $K,B_d,B_s,D$ mesons are analyzed within the model. They allow ($i$) relatively light Higgs, 100-150 GeV ($ii$) measurable extra contributions to the magnitudes and phases of the $B^0_{d,s}-\bar{B}^0_{d,s}$ mixing amplitudes and ($iii$) the $D^0-\bar{D}^0$ mixing at the current sensitivity level.
Minimal flavour violations and tree level FCNC
Joshipura, Anjan S.;Kodrani, Bhavik P.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.77.096003
Abstract: Consequences of a specific class of two Higgs doublet models in which the Higgs induced tree level flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) display minimal flavour violation (MFV) are considered. These FCNC are fixed in terms of the CKM matrix elements and the down quark masses. The minimal model in this category with only two Higgs doublets has no extra CP violating phases but such a phase can be induced by adding a complex singlet. Many of the theoretical predictions are similar to other MFV scenario. The FCNC contribute significantly to $B$ meson mixing and CP violation. Detailed numerical analysis to determine the allowed Higgs contributions to neutral meson mixings and the CKM parameters $\bar{\rho},\bar{\eta}$ in their presence is presented. The Higgs induced phase in the $B^0_{d,s}-\bar{B}^0_{d,s}$ transition amplitude $M_{12}^{d,s}$ is predicted to be equal for the $B_d$ and the $B_s$ systems. There is a strong correlation between phases in $M_{12}^{d,s}$ and $|V_{ub}|$. A measurable CP violating phase $\phi_s=-0.18\pm 0.08$ is predicted on the basis of the observed phase $\phi_d$ in the $B_d$ system if $|V_{ub}|$ is large and close to its value determined from the inclusive b decays.
A Framework: Secure Data Aggregation In Wireless Sensor Networks
VIMAL PAMBHAR, BHOOMI BANGORIA, BHAVIK KATARIA
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used in many applications in the area of tracking and monitoring. WSNs have many constraints like low computational power, small memory, and limited energy resources. Most of the energy consumption is due to data transmission. For that we apply Data aggregation approach on the sensed data by the deployed sensor nodes. This approach helps to reduce the number of transmissions and improves the life time of wireless sensor network with less energy usage of sensor nodes and also to protect Data Aggregation process from various kinds of attacks becomes extremely critical. So we give some general framework for Secure Data Aggregation.
Dynamic Task-Scheduling in Grid Computing using Prioritized Round Robin Algorithm
Sunita Bansal,Bhavik Kothari,Chittaranjan Hota
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: Over the years, grid computing has emerged as one of the most viable and scalable alternatives to high performance supercomputing, tapping into computing power of the order of Gigaflops. However, the inherent dynamicity in grid computing has made it extremely difficult to come up with near-optimal solutions to efficiently schedule tasks in grids. The present paper proposes a novel grid-scheduling heuristic that adaptively and dynamically schedules tasks without requiring any prior information on the workload of incoming tasks. The approach models the grid system in the form of a state-transition diagram, employing a prioritized round-robin algorithm with task replication to optimally schedule tasks, using prediction information on processor utilization of individual nodes. Simulations, comparing the proposed approach with the round-robin heuristic, have shown the given heuristic to be more effective in scheduling tasks as compared to the latter.
Hyperuricemia and the risk for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis - data from a prospective observational cohort study
Eswar Krishnan, Bhavik J Pandya, Lorinda Chung, Omar Dabbous
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3322
Abstract: Data from 2,498 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study were analyzed using logistic regression models. Subjects were free of clinical heart disease, diabetes, and renal impairment. The main measure was the presence of any CAC by computerized tomography (Agatston score >0).Forty-eight percent of the study participants were male and 45% were African-American. Mean (± SD) age was 40 ± 4 years, body mass index 28 ± 6 kg/m2, Framingham risk score -0.7 ± 5%, blood pressure 113 ± 14/75 ± 11 mmHg, alcohol consumption 12 ± 27 ml/day, and sUA 297 ± 89 μmol/L (5.0 ± 1.5 mg/dL). Prevalence of CAC increased with sUA concentration among both men and women. Adjusted for age, gender, race, lipoproteins, triglycerides, smoking, blood pressure, presence of metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein, waist circumference, alcohol use, creatinine, and serum albumin, the highest quartile of sUA (>393 μmol/L [6.6 mg/dL] for men and >274 μmol/L [4.6 mg/dL] for women) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.87 (1.19-2.93) compared to the lowest quartile (<291 μmol/L [4.9 mg/dL] for men and <196 μmol/L [3.3 mg/dL] for women). Among those with any CAC, each unit increase in sUA was associated with a 22% increase in Agatston score (P = 0.008) after adjusting for the above covariates.Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults.Although the link between elevated serum uric acid (sUA) concentrations and the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has long been observed, only recently have the pathophysiologic links become clearer [1]. Kanbay and colleagues [2] recently summarized the emerging data suggesting that hyperuricemia may cause not only atherosclerosis in the macrovascular beds such as the coronaries and the carotids but also microvascular damage in the renal vascular bed and may exacerbate vascular disease.Almost all epidemiological studies performed in populations of high
Chromatographic analysis of age-related changes in mucosal serotonin transmission in the murine distal ileum
Leena Parmar, Sara Fidalgo, Mark S Yeoman, Bhavik Patel
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-31
Abstract: An isocratic chromatographic method was able to detect all 5-HT precursors and metabolites. Using extracellular and intracellular sampling approaches, we were able to monitor all key parameters associated with the transmission process. There was no alteration in the levels of tryptophan and 5-HTP between 3 and 18?month old animals. There was a significant increase in the ratio of 5-HT:5-HTP and an increase in intracellular 5-HT between 3 and 18?month old animals suggesting an increase in 5-HT synthesis. There was also a significant increase in extracellular 5-HT with age, suggesting increased 5-HT release. There was an age-related decrease in the ratio of intracellular 5-HIAA:extracellular 5-HT, whilst the amount of 5-HIAA did not change with age. In the presence of an increase in extracellular 5-HT, the lack of an age-related change in 5-HIAA is suggestive of a decrease in re-uptake via the serotonin transporter (SERT).We have used intracellular and extracellular sampling to provide more insight into alterations in the neurotransmission process of 5-HT during normal ageing. We observed elevated 5-HT synthesis and release and a possible decrease in the activity of SERT. Taken together these changes lead to increased 5-HT availability and may alter motility function and could lead to the changes in adsorption observed in the elderly.As part of the normal process of ageing, significant changes are known to arise within most of our organs and tissues, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has proved no exception [1,2]. The incidence of functional GI disorders increases in the upper bowel as we age, including absorptional disorders [2,3]. These disorders often lead to mal-absorption in the elderly which has been described as the ‘anorexia of ageing’ theory [4,5]. Although these disorders are well documented, little is known about the physiological changes that underlie these conditions. Age-related alterations have been observed in ion transporters, intestinal transit and
Mechanisms of osteopontin and CD44 as metastatic principles in prostate cancer cells
Bhavik Desai, Michael J Rogers, Meenakshi A Chellaiah
Molecular Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-6-18
Abstract: We generated stable prostate cancer cell (PC3) lines that over-express osteopontin (PC3/OPN), mutant OPN in the integrin binding-site (PC3/RGDΔRGA), and null for OPN (PC3/SiRNA). The following observations were made in PC3/OPN cells as compared with PC3 cells: 1) an increase in multinucleated giant cells and RANKL expression; 2) an increase in CD44 surface expression, interaction of CD44/MMP-9 on the cell surface, MMP-9 activity in the conditioned medium, and cell migration; 3) western blot analysis of concentrated conditioned medium exhibited equal levels of MMP-9 protein in all PC3 cells. However, zymography analysis demonstrated that the levels of MMP-9 activity in the conditioned media reflect the CD44 surface expression pattern of the PC3 cell lines; 4) although MMP-9 and MMP-2 are secreted by PC3 cells, only the secretion of MMP-9 is regulated by OPN expression. A strong down regulation of the above-mentioned processes was observed in PC3/OPN (RGA) and PC3/SiRNA cells. PC3/OPN cells treated with bisphosphonate (BP) reproduce the down-regulation observed in PC3/OPN (RGA) and PC3/SiRNA cells.Rho signaling plays a crucial role in CD44 surface expression. BPs inhibits the mevalonate pathway, which in turn, prevents the prenylation of a number of small GTPases. Attenuation of Rho GTPase activation by BPs may have contributed to the down regulation of cell surface CD44/MMP-9 interaction, MMP-9 activation/secretion, and cell migration. Taken together, these observations suggest that CD44 surface expression is an important event in the activation of MMP-9 and migration of prostate cancer cells. The various steps involved in the above mentioned signaling pathway and/or the molecules regulating the activation of MMP-9 are potential therapeutic target.Prostate cancer is a disease of extensive metastases, with secondary lesions occurring in lymph nodes, bones and sometimes in visceral organs, such as the liver, lungs, and even the brain. The advanced stage of prostatic ca
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