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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22428 matches for " Gon?alves-Alvim "
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Comunidades de insetos galhadores (Insecta) em diferentes fisionomias do cerrado em Minas Gerais, Brasil
Gonalves-Alvim, Silmary J.;Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752001000500025
Abstract: studies on the communities of galling insects and their host plants were performed in three "cerrado" physiognomies that occur in minas gerais: "campo sujo", "cerrado" sensu strictu, and "cerrad?o". galls and host plants were collected along transects in a total of 3,000 herbs, 300 shrubs and 135 trees in each physiognomy. ninety two species of galling insects (morphotypes) on 62 host plant species of 28 families were found. the highest galling insect richness was observed in the "cerrado". approximately 75.0% of galling insects belonged to the cecidomyiidae (diptera). the highest gall frequency was found on leaves (58.70%) of the host plants, and was glabrous (83.70%). most gall shape were elliptic (30.43%). a low similarity in galling insect species was observed among the three sampled physiognomies - the highest similarity index was observed between "cerrado" and "campo sujo" (sφrensen index = 0.20), indicating that the presence of rare species of galling insects might be common in these environments.
Riqueza e abundancia de herbívoros em flores de Vellozia nivea (Velloziaceae)
Landau, Elena Charlotte;Gonalves-Alvim, Silmary de Jesus;Fagundes, Marcílio;Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061998000400009
Abstract: vellozia nivea (velloziaceae) is a herbaceous plant that occurs on rocky soils in the rupestrian fields of the "serra do cipó", minas gerais state, brazil. its hermaphrodite flowers are extremely soft, representing a source of tender food for the insects that prey on its tepals and reproductive structures. the aim of this study was to observe the effect of the height and number of flowers of the host plant on the abundance and richness of herbivorous insects. we found 21 morphospecies of insects (nine families and three orders) associated to flowers of v. nivea. no significant correlation between the number of flowers and plant height and the variety of herbivorous insects per plant was observed (r2 = 0.17, p > 0.05). however, these two factors together explained 39% of the variation of insect abundance (p < 0.05). thus, only the abundance of herbivorous insects was influenced by the number of flowers and the height of host plant.
Relationships between four Neotropical species of galling insects and shoot vigor
Gonalves-Alvim, Silmary J.;Faria, Maurício L.;Fernandes, Geraldo W.;
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0301-80591999000100016
Abstract: the plant-vigor hypothesis (pvh) predicts that females of galling insects preferentially oviposit on the most vigorous plant or plant modules, where their offspring performance is highest. we tested the pvh on neopelma baccharidis buckhardt (homoptera: psyllidae) and rhoasphondylia friburgensis tavares (diptera: cecidomyiidae) which induce galls on baccharis dracunculifolia d.c. (asteraceae), and on two different cecidomyiidae (diptera) species that induce galls on maytenus salicifolia reiss. (celastraceae) and vernonia polyanthes less (asteraceae), respectively. the abundance of galls induced by the four galling species increased with increasing shoot length, as predicted by the pvh. however, when we considered the rate of attack per shoot unit length (cm), which includes in the analyses the effect of availability of resource per unit length, the response patterns of the four gallers disappeared. r. friburgensis and cecidomyiidae species which cause galls on m. salicifolia did not respond to shoot vigor (p > 0.05) while the other species responded differentially. the abundance of n. baccharidis galls correlated negatively with shoot length (y = 0.185 - 0.007x, r2 = 0.21, f = 6.013, p < 0.05) while the number of galls caused by cecidomyiidae on v. polyanthes showed a positive relationship with shoot vigor (y = 0.09 + 0.002x, r2 = 0.34, f = 6.157, p < 0.05). hence, only the attack pattern of the cecidomyiid galler on v. polyanthes corroborated the pvh.
Test of hypotheses about herbivory and chemical defences of Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae) in Brazilian Cerrado
Gonalves-Alvim, Silmary J.;Lana, Tate C.;Ranieri, Bernardo D.;Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042011000200009
Abstract: (test of hypotheses about herbivory and chemical defences of qualea parviflora (vochysiaceae) in brazilian cerrado). qualea parviflora mart. (vochysiaceae), a widely distributed tree found in different habitats in brazilian cerrado (savanna), provides resources for a great variety of insects. in this study, we tested two hypotheses about plant investment in anti-herbivore defences along a fertility gradient in cerrado: the carbon/nitrogen balance (cnbh) and resource availability (rah). we also investigated how the pattern of herbivory varies through the year and among three types of vegetation in brazilian cerrado - campo sujo, cerrado sensu strictu and cerrad?o. sampling was conducted in three types of vegetation and in rainy (january and november) and dry months (april and july). damage on 20 completely expanded leaves, leaf nutrients, sclerophlylly, total phenols and tannins were recorded for each plant (n = 30). when leaves were young, less sclerophyllous, and with higher concentration of nutrients and tannins, damage by herbivores was about 7% in cerrado sensu stricto and 3% in campo sujo. mature leaves did not show any significant difference on herbivory among habitats, that varied from 6 to 9%. nutrient availability to plants is an important factor determining production of secondary metabolites in q. parviflora, corroborating the cnbh. the absence of correlation between damaged leaf area and tannin concentration did not corroborate the rah, suggesting that tannin production is not strongly influenced by herbivores on q. parviflora.
Response of the galling insect Aciurina trixa Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) to host plant quality
Fernandes, Geraldo W.;Price, Peter W.;Gonalves-Alvim, Silmary J.;Craig, Timoty P.;Yanega, Douglas;
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0301-80592000000300005
Abstract: female host plant selection, oviposition behavior, and offspring performance of the gall-forming tephritid aciurina trixa curran (diptera: tephritidae) on npk-fertilized and control plants of chrysothamnus nauseosus hololeucus pall. (britton) (asteraceae) were studied in northern arizona, usa. there was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of females that selected control versus fertilized plants, and between the time to accept control versus treatment plants. females laid fewer eggs and spent a longer time ovipositing on control plants than on treatment plants. larval performance (measured as time of first gall appearance on plant, gall diameter, and larval weight) was not statistically different between fertilized and control plants (p > 0.05).
Corticoide oral e inalatório para tratamento de sibilancia no primeiro ano de vida
Alvim, Cristina Gonalves;Nunes, Simone;Fernandes, Silvia;Camargos, Paulo;Fontes, Maria Jussara;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2011, DOI: 10.2223/JPED.2101
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the prevalence of corticoid utilization for the treatment of wheezing in infants less than 12 months old and to analyze factors associated with this practice. methods: this was a cross-sectional study that administered the validated questionnaire from the international study on the prevalence of wheezing in infants to 1,261 infants aged 12 to 15 months in belo horizonte, brazil. proportions and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and the chi-square test was used to detect associations between variables. results: six hundred and fifty-six (52%) infants, 53% male and 48.2% white, exhibited wheezing during the first year of life. mean age at first episode was 5.11±2.89 months. there was a high rate of morbidity, with many emergency visits (71%) and hospitalizations (27.8%). also common were a family history of asthma and atopic disease (32.2 to 71%) and exposure to passive smoking (41.5%) and to mould (47.3%). the prevalence rates for corticoid use, whether via oral route (48.7%) or inhaled (51.3%), were elevated and were higher in the group that suffered three or more episodes. children suffering greater morbidity were more likely to be prescribed a corticoid (p < 0.05). conclusion: the high frequency of corticoid use highlights the need to establish specific criteria for the treatment of wheezing in the first years of life in order to avoid extrapolation of asthma treatments to other conditions that are transitory and self-limiting and in which using corticoids could involve more risk than benefit.
Técnica para prepara o e conserva o de olhos de porco para cirurgia experimental
Alvim Heryberto da Silva,Diniz Cristiano Menezes,Tzelikis Patrick Frensel de Moraes,Gonalves Roberto Martins
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia do Dextran 40 a 10% em promover transparência corneana em olhos de porco, bem como indicar o melhor método [soro fisiológico a 0,9% (SF a 0,9%), Dextran 40 a 10% ou mistura de ambos em partes iguais] de conserva o para manuten o desta transparência. MéTODOS: Vinte olhos de porco, preparados com inje o de Dextran na camara anterior e embebidos na mesma solu o por 20 minutos. Quatro grupos de olhos, cada um com 5 olhos, conservados nas seguintes solu es: Grupo 1 (SF a 0,9%), Grupo 2 (SF a 0,9% + Dextran 40 a 10%), Grupo 3 (Dextran 40 a 10%), Grupo 4 (camara úmida - grupo controle). Os olhos foram observados após 12, 24, 36, 48, 56 e 72 horas e classificados quanto à transparência da córnea. RESULTADOS: O tratamento da córnea com Dextran 40 a 10% preservou a transparência corneana em 100% dos olhos. A solu o de SF a 0,9% e Dextran em partes iguais obteve maior tempo na manuten o da transparência, com 60% dos olhos viáveis às 72 horas. CONCLUS O: Dextran 40 a 10% é eficaz para promover a transparência corneana em olhos de porco post mortem. A mistura de SF a 0,9% e Dextran em partes iguais pode ser utilizada para manter viáveis os olhos de porco preparados por um período de até 72 horas.
Behavioral observations of grazing sheep in the Cerrado biome of Federal District Observa es comportamentais de ovinos em pastejo no bioma Cerrado do Distrito Federal
David Germano Gonalves Schwarz,Carlos Thiago Silveira Alvim Mendes de Oliveira,Flávia Aline Silveira Alvim Mendes de Oliveira,Juaci Vitória Malaquias
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: The knowledge of animal behavior under grazing in different biomes is an alternative to increase production because it identifies possibilities of strategic interventions in the management. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the average time of grazing, ruminating and leisure are related to the position (station/decubitus), to the location (sun or shade), as well as the influence of gender in these interactions in Santa Inês sheep in Cerrado from Federal District, Brazil. To obtain the data, the behavior of the animals was assessed by visual observations at ten-minute intervals over a period of ten hours on two consecutive days. From the data obtained were analysis of variance and comparisons between means by Tukey test with significance level of 5%. The result of this study showed that the average time of grazing, ruminating and leisure in Santa Inês sheep, are related to the position (station/decubitus) and location (sun and shade). No significant differences were identified in relation to time spent in the activity of grazing, ruminating and leisure between Santa Inês sheep males and females. O conhecimento do comportamento animal sob pastejo em diferentes biomas é uma alternativa para o incremento na produ o, pois identifica possibilidades de interven es estratégicas no manejo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar se o tempo médio de pastejo, rumina o e ócio est o relacionados com a posi o (esta o/decúbito), com o local (sob sol ou sombra), bem como a influência do sexo nestas intera es em ovinos da ra a Santa Inês no bioma Cerrado do Distrito Federal. Para a obten o dos dados, o comportamento dos animais foi avaliado por observa es visuais em intervalos de dez minutos num período de dez horas, em dois dias consecutivos. A partir dos dados obtidos foram realizadas as análises de variancia e compara es entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey com nível de significancia de 5%. O resultado deste estudo permitiu concluir que os tempos médios de pastejo, rumina o e ócio nos ovinos da ra a Santa Inês, est o relacionados com a posi o e o local. N o foram identificadas diferen as significativas em rela o ao tempo gasto na atividade de pastejo, rumina o e ócio entre machos e fêmeas.
Palinotaxonomia de Passiflora L. subg. Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. (Passifloraceae) no Brasil
Milward-de-Azevedo, Michaele Alvim;Souza, Fabiana Carvalho de;Baumgratz, José Fernando Andrade;Gonalves-Esteves, Vania;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062010000100013
Abstract: the palynological study of 21 taxa of passiflora l. subg. decaloba (dc.) rchb. (passifloraceae) in brazil aimed to contribute to a better characterization, as well as the circumscription and delimitation of the subgenus, species and subspecies. the pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described and illustrated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. the taxa have large or medium-sized pollen grains, isopolar, prolate spheroidal, oblate spheroidal, spheroidal or suprolate, 12-colpate, 12-colporate or 6-colporate, 3 or 6 mesocolpes, and presence or absence of opercules, pseudopercules and secondary opercules, microreticulate (p. truncata) and heteroreticulate exine in the other species. an identification key with pollen characteristics is presented, showing the importance of pollen characteristics for passiflora taxonomy.
Tratamiento laparoscópico de la ureterolitiasis: nuestra experiencia
Borges Matias,Danilo; Gonalves Alvim,Ricardo; Ribas,Mateus; Pierote de Oliveira,Bruno; Torres Chaves,Otto H.;
Actas Urológicas Espa?olas , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0210-48062009000600009
Abstract: objective: analyze technical details and results of laparoscopic treatment of ureterolithiasis. materials and methods: between january 2005 and august 2008 it was performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in 22 patients in our service. two (9%) by retroperitoneal access and 20 (91%) by transperitoneal access. mean size of the calculi was 15 mm. with a variation from 8 mm to 23 mm. the calculus were in the upper tract in 18 patients (81,8%) and in mid ureter in 4 patients (18,2), any of the calculus were in lower ureter. most of calculi were obstructive stones for more than 2 months. eight patients were submited a previous section of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and 2 by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy plus ureterolithotripsy as a calculi treatment attempt. twelve patients had a laparoscopic ureterolithotomy as a primary indication for treatment. results: laparoscopic ureterolithotomy was successful for 20 patients (90,9%), and the fails occurred in the beginning of our experiment. mean operative time was 145 minutes with range from 70 to 240 minutes. the indwelling ureteral stent was used in 03 cases; 02 preoperative, and 01 postoperative. the ureteral suture was performed with absorbable 4.0 separated stitches in all patients. the global average of permanence in hospital was 3,3 days and the drain permanence was 7,2 days. the global complication rate was 13,6%. the global rate of stone free was 91%, and there were residual stone in 2 patients. conclusions: the laparoscopic treatment of ureterolithiasis besides minimally invasive, it is viable, secure and very effective. it should have taken into consideration as a procedure to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy. but, in cases where there are obstructive stones for a long time, in selected patients and, in special, in patients with just one kidney, it can be considered as a first line treatment. about the access, if retroperitoneal or transperitoneal; it is not still possible to affirm
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