Objectives: This paper aims to estimate the associations between common mental disorders (CMD) as well as cases of alcohol abuse/dependence (ADD) with sociodemographic variables in population assisted by Family Health Program (FHP) in Santa Cruz do Sul, Southern Brazil. Methods: All residents over 14 years of age from 3 areas assisted by the FHP were invited to participate between 10 February 2006 to 10 February 2007. Results: Of 2921 participants, the prevalence estimates of suspected cases of CMD and ADD were 29.93% and 12.07%, respectively. Female, unfavorable employment situation, low schooling and low income showed a positive and independent association with CMD. Male, unfavorable employment situation and CMD showed an independent association with ADD. Conclusions: Groups with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions present the highest risk and should be taken into account when planning public mental health policies.