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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24945 matches for " Gon?alves Helen "
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A tuberculose ao longo dos tempos
Gonalves, Helen;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702000000300004
Abstract: this paper outlines a picture of the representations of tuberculosis in different decades and how they have been handled by clinical medicine. the history of the disease, from the early days of the xix century hygienist policies to the current control and prevention programs, displays a continual change of focus: social views were sometimes highlighted (the environment, work, housing), and at times the focus shifted to individual viewpoints (body fluids, lifestyle) regarding forms of prevention and cure of the disease. such diverse representations and concepts about tuberculosis have influenced the way in which medicine and sick individuals perceived the disease and dealt with it.
A tuberculose ao longo dos tempos
Gonalves Helen
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2000,
Abstract: O artigo tra a um painel das representa es da tuberculose em diferentes décadas e como estas foram administradas pela clínica médica. A história da doen a, desde as políticas higienistas do século XIX até o atual programa de controle e preven o, salienta a constante mudan a de foco: destacavam-se ora as vis es sociais (ambiente, trabalho, habita o), ora as individuais (fluidos corporais, estilo de vida) na forma de preven o e de cura da moléstia. As diferentes representa es e concep es da tuberculose e de saúde influenciaram a forma como a medicina e os indivíduos doentes a percebiam e a tratavam.
Trabalho, escolaridade e saúde reprodutiva: um estudo etno-epidemiológico com jovens mulheres pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimento
Gonalves, Helen;Gigante, Denise;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2006000700010
Abstract: an ethno-epidemiological study was carried out with adolescent women who have been studied since birth. in 2001, all female adolescents from the 1982 pelotas birth cohort were identified in 27% of all census tracts in pelotas, rio grande do sul state. risk factors for childbearing during adolescence were investigated using a case-control approach. cases (n = 420) were identified through the local live birth information system, and controls included 408 women who had not given birth by 2001. to understand social and cultural factors related to childbearing during adolescence, an ethnographic study focused on 23 young women from the case group. work, schooling, sexuality, and reproductive health were analyzed using an ethno-epidemiological approach. socioeconomic variables like work and schooling were strongly associated with childbearing in adolescence. an inverse linear association was observed between age at first dating and childbearing during adolescence (p < 0.001). focusing on the contexts and social values (traditional and/or modern), pregnancy was: a positive consequence of an affective relationship with the partner; a way of exposing adolescent sexuality; and a means to achieve a certain social autonomy and other forms of social status within the age group.
Trabalho, escolaridade e saúde reprodutiva: um estudo etno-epidemiológico com jovens mulheres pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimento
Gonalves Helen,Gigante Denise
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006,
Abstract: Em 2001, realizou-se em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, um estudo etno-epidemiológico com mulheres jovens que residiam em 27% dos setores censitários da cidade, pertencentes ao estudo de coorte dos nascidos em 1982. Os fatores associados à gravidez juvenil foram investigados por meio de um estudo de caso-controle. Os casos (n = 420) foram identificados pelo Sistema Nacional de Registro de Nascidos Vivos e o grupo controle incluiu 408 jovens sem filhos. Para entender os fatores e significados sócio-culturais da gravidez até 19 anos, o componente etnográfico foi desenvolvido com 23 mulheres. Levando-se em conta a possibilidade de complementa o entre as duas abordagens utilizadas, foram privilegiados, por sua importancia na juventude e na sua transi o para a fase adulta, trabalho, escolaridade, sexualidade e saúde reprodutiva. Os resultados demonstraram associa o linear inversa entre a idade do primeiro namoro e paridade (p < 0,001). Priorizando os contextos e valores sociais (tradicionais e/ou modernos), foi possível compreender que a gravidez é uma decorrência positiva do envolvimento afetivo com o companheiro; exp e a sexualidade juvenil; confere novo status no grupo e dá certa autonomia social.
Explorando as múltiplas trajetórias de causalidade: colabora??o entre antropologia e epidemiologia na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS
Béhague,Dominique P; Gonalves,Helen;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008000900016
Abstract: objective: although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. this paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. methods: the anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in pelotas, southern brazil. analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. results and conclusions: the ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. in exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.
Aproveitar a vida, juventude e gravidez
Gonalves, Helen;Knauth, Daniela Riva;
Revista de Antropologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-77012006000200004
Abstract: this manuscript demonstrates how important is the concept of enjoying life for the subjects studied. it was part of a qualitative study carried out in pelotas during 2001-2002, including 23 adolescent mothers aged 18-19 years, and 10 of their mothers. the aim of the study was to understand the context of adolescent pregnancy among youngsters belonging to poor or medium socioeconomic level families, who are part of a birth cohort study/1982. during the field work, the concept of enjoying life was highlighted in the narratives. this concept helped qualifying, classifying, and justifying youth's behavior. the analyses show that the youngsters should live in an enjoyable way of living, acting positively or negatively according to the context and to the social values. pregnancy is seen as a consequence of this behavior, after transposing socio-cultural limits in adolescence. therefore, enjoying life highlights how do they feel, and explains why some behaviors are more criticized in this period of life course.
Efeitos das condi??es climáticas no trimestre de nascimento sobre asma e pneumonia na infancia e na vida adulta em uma coorte no Sul do Brasil
González, David Alejandro;Victora, Cesar G.;Gonalves, Helen;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008000500016
Abstract: this study evaluated the effects of seasonal weather at time of birth and ambient temperature during the first six months of life on hospitalizations due to asthma and pneumonia in preschool children and on diagnosis of asthma in adulthood among individuals from the 1982 birth cohort in pelotas, rio grande do sul, brazil. the cohort included 5,914 live births, of which 77% were followed up until adulthood (23-24 yr). the risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia and asthma among children born from april to june (autumn) was 1.31 (95%ci: 0.99-1.73) to 2.4 (95%ci: 1.11-4.99) times higher than that of children born from january to march (summer). for temperature in the first six months of life, risk of hospitalization was 1.64 (95%ci: 1.26-2.13) to 3.16 (95%ci: 1.63-6.12) times higher for children born in the coldest as compared to the hottest temperature tertile. the effects of seasonality decreased with age, and the association with asthma in adulthood was weak. hospitalizations in poor children were more frequent, but the effects of seasonality on pneumonia were more evident among the wealthiest.
Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture
Béhague,Dominique Pareja; Gonalves,Helen; Victora,Cesar Gomes;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232008000600002
Abstract: collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross disciplinary collaboration. although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline's main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. we believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of "multidisciplinarity," to the adoption of theoretically imbued "interdisciplinarity." the more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. in our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other.
Lideran?a situacional em gest?o de projetos: uma revis?o da literatura
Gonalves, Helen Silva;Mota, Caroline Maria de Miranda;
Produ??o , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-65132011005000046
Abstract: the leadership style that should be adopted by a project manager is a subject that has been emphasized in recent researches. among several theories, the situational leadership presented by hersey and blanchard (2007) approaches working and psychological maturity as elements that influence the performance of employees. the determination of such level allows the use of an adjustable style of leadership. this article approaches the necessity of using a tool that efficiently assists the project manager to adopt an adjustable style of leadership for the situation. in order to demonstrate how difficult such an activity can be, a research in an information technology company was fulfilled, evaluating the level of maturity. it was observed that, in order to practice a more effective leadership, it is necessary to count on more structuralized methods.
Lideran a situacional em gest o de projetos: uma revis o da literatura Situational leadership in project management: a literature review
Helen Silva Gonalves,Caroline Maria de Miranda Mota
Produ??o , 2011,
Abstract: O estilo de lideran a que deve ser adotado por um gerente de projetos em rela o a seus liderados é um assunto enfatizado em pesquisas recentes. Dentre as teorias, a lideran a situacional apresentada por Hersey e Blanchard (2007) aborda as maturidades para o trabalho e psicológica como elementos que influenciam o desempenho dos funcionários. A determina o de tal nível permite a utiliza o de um estilo de lideran a mais adequado. Este artigo aborda a necessidade de utiliza o de uma ferramenta que auxilie de maneira eficiente o gerente de projetos a adotar o estilo de lideran a mais adequado à situa o e liderados. Para demonstrar o qual difícil pode ser tal atividade, em uma empresa de tecnologia da informa o, foi realizada uma pesquisa avaliando o nível de maturidade de seus liderados. Observou-se que para a lideran a ser mais efetiva deve dispor de métodos mais estruturados para tal. The leadership style that should be adopted by a project manager is a subject that has been emphasized in recent researches. Among several theories, the situational leadership presented by Hersey and Blanchard (2007) approaches working and psychological maturity as elements that influence the performance of employees. The determination of such level allows the use of an adjustable style of leadership. This article approaches the necessity of using a tool that efficiently assists the project manager to adopt an adjustable style of leadership for the situation. In order to demonstrate how difficult such an activity can be, a research in an Information Technology company was fulfilled, evaluating the level of maturity. It was observed that, in order to practice a more effective leadership, it is necessary to count on more structuralized methods.
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