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Behavioural Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Nepalese Urban Poor: A Descriptive Study from a Slum Area of Kathmandu
Natalia Oli,Abhinav Vaidya,Gobardhan Thapa
Epidemiology Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/329156
Abstract: There has been a rapid rise in the burden of noncommunicable diseases in low-income countries like Nepal. Political and economical instability leading to internal migration give rise to haphazard urbanization in Nepal. This, coupled with negative effects of globalization, is largely responsible for changing lifestyle and developing risky behaviour among the urban poor that put them at high risk of developing noncommunicable diseases. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from September to December 2012 in an urban slum of Kathmandu to explore the prevalence of four major behaviour risk factors namely physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and tobacco and alcohol use and to measure the burden of obesity and hypertension in the population. We used WHO NCDs Risk Factor steps 1 and 2 questionnaires in all the 689 households of the slum. The major behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases were very common with at least a quarter of the population having the major risk factors. The results may serve to form a framework to future planning, policy-making, implementation, and evaluation of any measures undertaken to reduce these risk factors, especially as the government is planning to unveil the National Urban Health Policy soon. 1. Introduction It is well established that noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity worldwide including the Southeast Asia region (SEAR) [1]. Four main NCDs, namely cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases, are mainly responsible for this high mortality and morbidity. Of the estimated 14.5 million total deaths in 2008 in SEAR, more than half (55%) of them were due to NCDs, mainly cardiovascular disease (25%) [1]. From the beginning, NCDs and particularly CVDs were termed diseases of the rich in the developed countries [2]. However, over the past two decades, CVD deaths have been declining in the high-income countries but increasing significantly in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [3]. One of the reasons for this increase is the rising life expectancy like the one being seen in South Asia region which leads to shifting disease burden towards NCDs [4]. Moreover, at the same time, the trend of urbanization is drastically increasing in this region causing changes in lifestyle of the people. For example, shifting lifestyle towards low physical activity and unhealthy diet leads to a rise in prevalence of obesity and NCDs among urban population [5]. For this reason, NCDs have also been
Solubility Enhancement of Domperidone Fast Disintegrating Tablet Using Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin by Inclusion Complexation Technique  [PDF]
Prakash Thapa, Ritu Thapa, Uttam Budhathoki, Panna Thapa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.53031

Domperidone Maleate (DOM), an antiemetic drug, has been used in treatment of adults and children. It has low aqueous solubility and hence low bioavailability. In present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the solubility of DOM by inclusion complexation with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) using kneading technique and formulation of fast disintegrating tablets by using Sodium Starch Glycolate as superdisintegrant. Solubility analysis of DOM in different concentrations of HP-β-CD was carried out. Design of experiment (DOE) is done by using MINITAB 15.1 software to find out the variable for dissolution and disintegration time. HP-β-CD and SSG were identified as the variable for disintegration time and dissolution. For optimization of the concentration of HP-β-CD and SSG, two factors at two levels design through central composite design (CCD)

On Secure Digital Image Watermarking Techniques  [PDF]
Manjit Thapa, Sandeep Kumar Sood
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2011.24017
Abstract: Digital watermarking is used to hide the information inside a signal, which can not be easily extracted by the third party. Its widely used application is copyright protection of digital information. It is different from the encryption in the sense that it allows the user to access, view and interpret the signal but protect the ownership of the content. One of the current research areas is to protect digital watermark inside the information so that ownership of the information cannot be claimed by third party. With a lot of information available on various search engines, to protect the ownership of information is a crucial area of research. In latest years, several digital watermarking techniques are presented based on discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete wavelets transform (DWT) and discrete fourier transforms (DFT). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for digital image watermarking technique based on singular value decomposition; both of the L and U components are explored for watermarking algorithm. This technique refers to the watermark embedding algorithm and watermark extracting algorithm. The experimental results prove that the quality of the watermarked image is excellent and there is strong resistant against many geometrical attacks.
Antimicrobial resistance: a global threat
Thapa B
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v1i2.7405
Abstract: Since the discovery of penicillin by Sr. Alexender Fleming in 1928, it had been instrumental in treating critically ill patients and increasing life expectancy. However the emergence of penicillin resistance in 1940s has threatened all the gains offered by it. Newer pharmaceutical companies emerged and newer antimicrobial agents were discovered and commercialized for the treatment of infections but most of them are already ineffective to treat infections due to growing antimicrobial resistance. This emergence of multi-drug (MDR), pan-drug (PDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) pathogens is a global problem, the seriousness of which is evident by the fact that WHO adopted the World Health Day theme 2011 as “Combating antimicrobial resistance”. The growing resistance has posed serious effects for the health care systems in addition to the economic burden to the patients and families. Almost one third of world’s population is infected with tuberculosis and it’s a public health problem. Emergence of TB among HIV infected has worsened the scenario of both the diseases. Malaria is another disease of the poor complicating the situation. In addition to these infectious diseases of public health importance numerous bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungal agents are infecting patients in the hospitals and the community. Usually the first line antimicrobial agents cure the patients, but the treatment has to be switched to second line when they emerge as drug resistant. This second line drugs (reserve drugs) are more expensive and more toxic and are also becoming ineffective. The methicillin resistant and vancomycin resistant Staphylocccus aureus, MDR and PDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas malotphila etc., metallo-betalactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, antiretroviral resistant HIV-1, MDR and XDR strains of M. tuberculosis have already emerged in the globe.1,2,3,4 Growing antimicrobial resistance has numerous effects like, prolonged hospital stay, treatment failure, spread of resistant pathogens to other patients, secondary complications and economic, social and mental problems to the patients as well as for their families. The achieved success in controlling TB will be ruined by increasing MDR and XDR strain and is a threat to the TB control programmes. Similarly, emergence of Artesunate resistance in malaria parasite will pose challenge in malaria control.5The emergence of resistance is due to inappropriate and indiscriminate use of over the counter antimicrobial agents, irrational use, ina
Study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and HIV infected humans in the periphery of river basins of Kathmandu valley
Thapa B
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i2.8326
Abstract: The article Paudyal S, Karna SR, Khatiwada S, Joshi LR, Tiwari A, Shrestha SP. Study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and HIV infected humans in the periphery of river basins of Kathmandu valley. Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1);7-11 published in Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1) should be read as follows; Table 2, Row 7 column 5, 18 instead of 17 and Row 8 column 5, 32 instead of 33 (letters written in bold). In the section citing this article the “Int J Infect Microbial 2013;1(2):7-11 should read as “Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1):7-11”.
Multiple lentigenes with deafness in a 5-year-old boy
Thapa Rajoo
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2006,
A febrile infant with rash and coronary aneurysm
Thapa Rajoo
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2006,
Pigmentary mosaicism: An update
Thapa Rajoo
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2008,
Computational algorithm for parameter identification in sine-Gordon equation with Neumann boundary conditions
N. Thapa
Applied Mathematical Sciences , 2012,
The Short Textbook of Medical Microbiology
Badri Thapa
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v8i2.3579
Abstract: The Short Textbook of Medical Microbiology (Including Parasitology) By Satish Gupte 10th Edition Price Rs. 632/- Published by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P.) Ltd.
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