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EMULGELS: A NOVEL FORMULATION APPROACH FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF HYDROPHOBIC DRUGS
Bhatt Preeti,Gnanaranjan.G
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: A unique feature of topical drug delivery is the direct accessibility of the skin as a target organ for diagnosis and treatment. Among the various groups of semisolid preparations, the use of gels has expanded both in cosmetics and in pharmaceutical preparations. Despite of several advantages of gels there is a limitation in delivery of hydrophobic drug moiety. This limitation can be overcome by the use of novel topical drug delivery i.e, emulgel. When gel and emulsion are used in combined form the dosage form are referred as emulgel. The presence of a gelling agent in the water phase converts a classical emulsion into an emulgel. The major objective behind this formulation is delivery of hydrophobic drugs to systemic circulation via skin. Emulgels show dual release control system i.e. gel and emulsion. These emulgel are having major advantages on novel vesicular systems as well as on conventional systems in various aspects. Emulgels for dermatological use have several favourable properties such as being thixotropic, greaseless, easily spreadable, easily removable, emollient, non-staining, water-soluble, longer shelf life, bio-friendly, transparent & pleasing appearance. Various permeation enhancers can potentiate the effect, So emulgels can be used as better topical drug delivery systems over present systems. The use of emulgels can be extended in analgesics, antifungal drugs and various cosmetic formulations.
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF CLARITHROMYCIN PERIODONTAL STRIPS FOR PERIODONTITIS
Kothari Sudeep,Gnanaranjan G.,Kothiyal Preeti
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Periodontitis is an inflammatory response to the overgrowth of anaerobic organisms in the sub gingiva and if unchecked, results in the destruction of the bone and soft tissues supporting the tooth. Studies suggest that clarithromycin can attain higher concentration in the inflammed gingiva and it also produces anti-inflammatory effect. The systemic drug administration has been useful in treating periodontitis but the disadvantage that, the drug is diluted several thousand folds before it reaches the site. This problem can be overcome by administering the drug directly to the intended site of action with lesser dose. In present study periodontal strips were prepared by using solvent casting technique. Formulations were designed by taking Ethyl cellulose alone and with copolymers (HPMC K4M, Eudragit RS‐ 100, PVP K30) was dissolved in chloroform and dichloromethane (1:1) solution, using dibutyl phthalate and PEG‐400 as plasticizers.
A Characterization of the Members of a Subfamily of Power Series Distributions  [PDF]
G. Nanjundan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.26099
Abstract: This paper discusses a characterization of the members of a subfamily of power series distributions when their probability generating functions satisfy the functional equation where a, b and c are constants and is the derivative of f.
Double Negative Left-Handed Metamaterials for Miniaturization of Rectangular Microstrip Antenna  [PDF]
G. Singh
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.26044
Abstract: In this paper, I have explored a significant concept for the miniaturization of microstrip patch antenna configuration by using the double negative (DNG) left-handed Metamaterials, which have dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability both negative, simultaneously. It is achieved through the concept of phase-compensation by thin slab consist of the double positive (DPS) material, which have dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability both positive, simultaneously and DNG metamaterials as a substrate of the microstrip patch antenna. By combining the DNG metamaterial slab with the slab made of DPS materials form a cavity resonator whose dispersion relation is independent of the sum of thickness of the slabs filling this cavity but it depends on the ratio of their thicknesses. This cavity constitutes by DPS and DNG material is used as substrate of the microstrip antennas and the DNG material slab is behave as phase compensator.
Dynamic and Configurational Approach to the Glass Transition by Nanoscale Cooperativity  [PDF]
G. Romeo
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2012.23012
Abstract: Here we examine the findings obtained for disaccharide/water mixtures near glass transition that involves cooperative relaxation features on kinetic by viscosity and on thermodynamic behaviour by neutron scattering. Then to address cooperative phenomena that mitigate the Debye-Waller behaviour we invoke Adam-Gibbs’ idea of a cooperative rearranging region. Neutron results suggest that the excess mean square displacement behaves as free volume and is closely connected to an elementary step of the structural relaxation. Then viscosity data evidence a breakdown of the Einstein-Debye relation, decoupling attributed to the intermolecular cooperativity.
Confidence Level Estimator of Cosmological Parameters  [PDF]
G. Sironi
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.329157
Abstract: Cosmological Models frequently suggest the existence of physical, quantities, e.g. dark energy, we cannot yet observe and measure directly. Their values are obtained indirectly setting them equal to values and accuracy of the associated model parameters which best fit model and observation. Apparently results are so accurate that some researchers speak of precision cosmology. The accuracy attributed to these indirect values of the physical quantities however does not include the uncertainty of the model used to get them. We suggest a Confidence Level Estimator to be attached to these indirect measurements and apply it to current cosmological models.
Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis in Anabantoidei fish  [PDF]
G. Degani
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33039
Abstract:

The decline of ornamental fish populations in their native habitats due to over-fishing has brought about the development of ornamental fish aquaculture, to which fish of the Anabantoidei suborder are important contributors. The genetic variations among species of this suborder were examined by mitochondrial gene sequencing analysis using the cytochrome b and 12S genes. According to the cytochrome b gene, the most similar strains were Trichogaster trichopterus (gold) and Trichogaster trichopterus (blue) (100%). Trichogaster leerii was less similar to them (86.0%), and an even lower similarity was found between the species T. trichopterus and Trichogaster labiosus (85.6%). The least similarity was observed between Betta betta and the genera Colisa (50.2%) and Trichogaster (60.1%). The phylogenetic trees of 12S and cytochrome b were very similar. According to 12S, the similarity between Trichogaster species was high (91.4% - 100%), and between species of this genus and Colisa lalia, it was lower (88.4%). In conclusion, sequence analyses, based on cytochrome

Estimation of Parameter in a New Truncated Distribution  [PDF]
G. Nanjundan
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.34025
Abstract: This paper discusses the estimation of the parameter in a truncated form of a discrete distribution which is analogous to Burr distribution. The maximum likelihood and the moment estimators of the parameter are obtained. Their asymptotic properties are also established.
The Kieswerk of Pointe Saint-Mathieu and the Atlantic Wall  [PDF]
G. Tomezzoli
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.54017
Abstract: In this article a construction of the Atlantic Wall discovered on 02/01/2006 near the Pointe Saint Mathieu (Finistère, France) is identified and its purpose is clarified. It witnessed the presence, during the World War II, at Pointe Saint-Mathieu, of a Kieswerk or pebble factory in which the pebbles and/or crushed pebbles of the Ero Vili were stored and distributed. The Kieswerk was very likely to have participated in the construction of the Atlantic Wall fortifications of the Pointe Saint-Mathieu.
On the Gravitational Bending of Light
—Was Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington Right?
 [PDF]

G. G. Nyambuya, W. Simango
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.41022
Abstract:

The paramount British-Led (May 29, 1919) Solar Eclipse Result of Eddington et al. has been tremendous if not an arcane effect in persuading scientists, philosophers and the general public, to accept Einstein’s esoteric General Theory of Relativity (GTR) thereby “deserting” Newtonian gravitation altogether, especially in physical domains of extreme gravitation where Einstein’s GTR is thought or believed to reign supreme. The all-crucial factor “2” predicted by Einstein’s GTR has been “verified” by subsequent measurements, more so by the most impressive and precision modern technology of VLBA measurements using cosmological radio waves to within 99.998% accuracy. From within the most well accepted provinces, confines and domains of Newtonian gravitational theory, herein, we demonstrate that the gravitational to inertial mass ratio of photons in Newtonian gravitational theory where the identities of the inertial and gravitational mass are preserved, the resulting theory is very much compatible with all measurements made of the gravitational bending of light. Actually, this approach posits that these measurements of the gravitational bending of light not only confirm the gravitational bending of electromagnetic waves, but that, on a much more subtler level; rather clandestinely, these measurements are in actual

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