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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220055 matches for " Glen C. Weiser "
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Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana
David S. Miller,Glen C. Weiser,Keith Aune,Brent Roeder,Mark Atkinson,Neil Anderson,Thomas J. Roffe,Kim A. Keating,Phillip L. Chapman,Cleon Kimberling,Jack Rhyan,P. Ryan Clarke
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/162520
Abstract: Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. 1. Introduction Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) experienced substantial decreases in population numbers and range in the 19th and the early 20th centuries, and subsequent recovery efforts have often been limited by large-scale die-offs [1–3]. These initial population declines were associated with settlement of western North America and were attributed to unregulated hunting, competition for forage with domestic sheep (O. aries) and other livestock, and disruption of historic bighorn sheep migration patterns due to development. Clinical disease was apparently unimportant or was underreported in these early declines, though die-offs of bighorn sheep associated with sheep scab (Psoroptes sp.) were reported following settlement [4, 5]. Bighorn sheep die-offs associated with pneumonia were reported in the 1920s and 1930s [6–10]. These early reports and subsequent work largely focused on lungworm (Protostrongylus sp.) as the primary infectious agent, although the involvement of Pasteurella sp., Corynebacterium pyogenes (currently Arcanobacterium pyogenes), and other host and environmental determinants were also noted as potential causes of respiratory disease. Subsequently, inconsistent association of lungworm with respiratory disease in bighorn sheep, as well as further evidence for Pasteurella sp. as the cause of pneumonia, led to a focus on pasteurellosis as a cause of respiratory disease outbreaks [11–14]. This research included evidence that Pasteurella sp. strains from clinically
A Review of Hypothesized Determinants Associated with Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Die-Offs
David S. Miller,Eric Hoberg,Glen Weiser,Keith Aune,Mark Atkinson,Cleon Kimberling
Veterinary Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/796527
Abstract: Multiple determinants have been hypothesized to cause or favor disease outbreaks among free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. This paper considered direct and indirect causes of mortality, as well as potential interactions among proposed environmental, host, and agent determinants of disease. A clear, invariant relationship between a single agent and field outbreaks has not yet been documented, in part due to methodological limitations and practical challenges associated with developing rigorous study designs. Therefore, although there is a need to develop predictive models for outbreaks and validated mitigation strategies, uncertainty remains as to whether outbreaks are due to endemic or recently introduced agents. Consequently, absence of established and universal explanations for outbreaks contributes to conflict among wildlife and livestock stakeholders over land use and management practices. This example illustrates the challenge of developing comprehensive models for understanding and managing wildlife diseases in complex biological and sociological environments. 1. Introduction Effective management and conservation of wildlife populations can be undermined by multiple causes. These include decreased and altered habitat and other direct anthropogenic effects, climate change, competition and predation from nonnative wildlife and domestic species, demographic challenges associated with small populations, multiple, incompatible management objectives for sympatric species or their habitat, and exposure to native and exotic infectious agents [1–4]. The consequences and interactions of these variables are difficult to understand and predict, and may vary by circumstances. This uncertainty, particularly when it occurs in complex sociological environments where stakeholders have differing values and objectives, presents substantial challenges for decision makers. In such uncertain environments, the absence of data and differing values can result in polarized debate among stakeholders. It can also serve as an impediment to the acquisition of data that would contribute to effective management. Respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) illustrate the challenge of identifying and managing disease in valued wildlife populations, where stakeholder perceptions and values clash [5]. Bighorn sheep are highly valued for recreational, ecological, philosophical, spiritual, and other reasons [6]. Bighorns have experienced a population decline of two orders of magnitude subsequent to 19th century settlement of western North
“I’ve Got the Pilot”: An Interpretation of Flight, a Film by John Gatins, Writer, and Robert Zemeckis, Director  [PDF]
Judith Ferster, Paul Weiser
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.23013
Abstract:

Robert Zemeckis’s recent film Flight, about a talented but flawed commercial airline pilot (played by Denzel Washington) is discussed on both the realistic and allegorical levels, showing the relationship between the contemporary plot and the fifteenth-century morality play, The Summoning of Everyman. Evidence for and against the different kinds of interpretation is identified and discussed. The film forces the main character to make a series of progressively more difficult and significant ethical decisions about drugs, alcohol, friends (true and false), lovers, and personal atonement that challenge him. The audience must make an interpretive decision between the possible levels of meaning.

Anti- and Protumorigenic Effects of PPARγ in Lung Cancer Progression: A Double-Edged Sword
Howard Li,Mary C. M. Weiser-Evans,Raphael Nemenoff
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/362085
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that plays an important role in the control of gene expression linked to a variety of physiological processes, including cancer. Ligands for PPARγ include naturally occurring fatty acids and the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Activation of PPARγ in a variety of cancer cells leads to inhibition of growth, decreased invasiveness, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, and promotion of a more differentiated phenotype. However, systemic activation of PPARγ has been reported to be protumorigenic in some in vitro systems and in vivo models. Here, we review the available data that implicate PPARγ in lung carcinogenesis and highlight the challenges of targeting PPARγ in lung cancer treatments. 1. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide and is responsible for 1.4 million deaths annually [1]. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. Despite improvements in surgical techniques and combined therapies, lung cancer remains a disease with a dismal prognosis. Although one-year all-stage survival increased from 32% in 1973 to 41% in 1994, overall five-year survival has remained unchanged at 14%. The five-year survival rate is 53% for cases detected when the disease is still localized, but only 15% of lung cancers are diagnosed at this early stage [2]. These data underscore the need to develop new therapeutic approaches to target lung cancer progression and metastasis. During the past 25 years, cancer research has made great progress in defining pathways involved in the transformation of “normal” epithelial cells to cancer cells. These studies have largely focused on the identification of somatic mutations resulting in the activation of oncogenes and the inhibition of tumor suppressor pathways. However, the pathways mediating the conversion of a cancer cell to a metastatic cancer cell remain poorly understood. In addition, it has become apparent during the last decade that progression of solid tumors to metastatic disease involves not just changes in the transformed epithelia itself, but also critical changes in the surrounding stroma, designated the tumor microenvironment (TME) [3]. Changes in the TME have been observed for a long time, in particular, an association between chronic inflammation and tumor development [4]. However, the mechanistic pathways whereby stromal cells contribute to
Is Food Insecurity Associated with HIV Risk? Cross-Sectional Evidence from Sexually Active Women in Brazil
Alexander C. Tsai ,Kristin J. Hung,Sheri D. Weiser
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001203
Abstract: Background Understanding how food insecurity among women gives rise to differential patterning in HIV risks is critical for policy and programming in resource-limited settings. This is particularly the case in Brazil, which has undergone successive changes in the gender and socio-geographic composition of its complex epidemic over the past three decades. We used data from a national survey of Brazilian women to estimate the relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk. Methods and Findings We used data on 12,684 sexually active women from a national survey conducted in Brazil in 2006–2007. Self-reported outcomes were (a) consistent condom use, defined as using a condom at each occasion of sexual intercourse in the previous 12 mo; (b) recent condom use, less stringently defined as using a condom with the most recent sexual partner; and (c) itchy vaginal discharge in the previous 30 d, possibly indicating presence of a sexually transmitted infection. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured using the culturally adapted and validated Escala Brasiliera de Seguran?a Alimentar. In multivariable logistic regression models, severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with a reduced odds of consistent condom use in the past 12 mo (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.92) and condom use at last sexual intercourse (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57–0.98). Self-reported itchy vaginal discharge was associated with all categories of food insecurity (with AORs ranging from 1.46 to 1.94). In absolute terms, the effect sizes were large in magnitude across all outcomes. Underweight and/or lack of control in sexual relations did not appear to mediate the observed associations. Conclusions Severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with reduced odds of condom use and increased odds of itchy vaginal discharge, which is potentially indicative of sexually transmitted infection, among sexually active women in Brazil. Interventions targeting food insecurity may have beneficial implications for HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Task Scheduling Based On Thread Essence and Resource Limitations
Tomer Y. Morad,Avinoam Kolodny,Uri C. Weiser
Journal of Computers , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.7.1.53-64
Abstract: Scheduling of threads based on the concept of thread essence is proposed in this paper. Multithreaded applications contain serial phases (single thread) and parallel phases (many threads). We propose a thread assignment mechanism that takes into account the essence of the threads in simultaneously-running applications that grants higher priority to applications during their critical-serial phases, for environments where there are more threads than cores. Furthermore, our proposed scheduler considers the limited resources of the system by reducing the number of context switches when there are more ready threads than cores. Analytic and experimental evaluation of the proposed thread assignment mechanism on both symmetric and emulated asymmetric multiprocessors show throughput improvements by as much as 16%, improved fairness by as much as 26% and reduced jitter by as much as 88%.
Harnessing Poverty Alleviation to Reduce the Stigma of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
Alexander C. Tsai ,David R. Bangsberg,Sheri D. Weiser
PLOS Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001557
Abstract:
Top Physics at the LHC
Christian Weiser
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Top quark physics will be a prominent topic in Standard Model physics at the LHC. The enormous amount of top quarks expected to be produced will allow to perform a wide range of precision measurements. An overview of the planned top physics programme of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC is given.
Networks Unplugged: Towards A Model of Compatibility Regulation Between Information Platforms
Phil Weiser
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Networks Unplugged: Towards A Model of Compatibility Regulation Between Information Platforms This Article outlines a basic model for regulating interoperability between rival information platforms. In so doing, it insists that antitrust, intellectual property, and telecommunications regulation all must follow the same set of principles to facilitate competition between rival standards where possible, mandating or allowing cooperation only where necessary to facilitate competition within a standard when network-level competition is infeasible. To date, the antitrust regime best approximates the type of model I have in mind, but sound competition policy requires that telecommunications regulation and intellectual property law follow its basic principles as well.
Power of the Neyman smooth tests for the uniform distribution
Glen D. Rayner,John C. W. Rayner
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s117391260100013x
Abstract: This paper compares and investigates the generalised Neyman smooth test, its components, and the classical chi-squared test with a variety of equiprobable classes. Each test is evaluated in terms of its power to reject a wavelike alternative to the uniform distribution, chosen to quantify the complexity of the alternative. Results indicate that if broadly focused tests (rather than strongly directional or weakly omnibus) are sought, then smooth tests of order about four, or the chi-squared test with between five and ten classes, will perform well.
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