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Contributing Factors to Long Working Hours: Case Study of Waiters in Dire Dawa Administration  [PDF]
Gizachew Girma, Tadesse Moges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.63017
Abstract: The need to create and maintain industrial peace, in one hand, protect the fragile interest of workers on the other side to boost economic development have been critical issues which have attained significant consideration from states. To that end, they introduced at international and national levels different set of legislations regulating employment relations. Among other things, working time limit has meticulously been introduced to safeguard the rights of workers, who are generally with the lesser bargaining power, and make the labor more productive. Ethiopia has accepted this notion of delimitating working hours, and adopted legislations. However, it has become a public secret that such rules have not been maintained in practice and that the enforcement mechanism appeared meager. Though researches have been made in different part of the world; in Ethiopia, particularly in Dire Dawa, the factors contributing for long working hours have not been addressed. There are, however, indicators that particularly waiters are working for longer hours than what the law stipulates. In a town dubbed as industrial corner, this factor should not be left unconsidered if the aspired objective of the labour regulation is really to be met. This research, hence, took the first step in studying the existence of this violation, and investigating the contributing factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires and interviews, and samples were taken using stratified systematic sampling method. Data were analyzed through quantitative (descriptive analysis and logistic regression model) and qualitative techniques. Then, job insecurity, lack of legal awareness, culture of the work, salary, tips, dependents, and level of education have been found out to be contributing factors, and their level of significance has also been established. It has also revealed that the absence of strong enforcement mechanisms contributed for the apparent non-adherence to the rules so delimiting working hours.
Reimaging Ethiopia through Destination Branding  [PDF]
Mulugeta Girma
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.62019
Abstract: As the name of a country is negatively seen due to certain unpleasant incidents, re-imaging is obviously important and Ethiopia is affected by early derogatory histories which force the modern readers and viewers conception to be shaped by stories of wars and natural disasters including famine crisis that highly affect the destination brands especially the re-imaging effort. On this regard, Ethiopia was analyzed from the context of the tourists and some concerned organization so as to identify the possibility of re-imaging the country by using destination branding practices. To meet the goal, the study used mixed research approach and samples of 368 respondents were selected randomly to fill the questionnaires and out of it, 316 of them were collected and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics accordingly to test the hypothesis and reach the conclusions. The output reflects the destination marketing facts and insights in general, and recommendations are provided on how to re-image Ethiopia through destination branding which can be possible using branding techniques that could bring significant changes over stereotypes developed because of incidents that happen in the past.
Political Marketing: Exploring the Nexus between Theory and Practice in Ethiopia (Comparative Study between Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front and Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party)  [PDF]
Mulugeta Girma
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.42035
Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to explore the Nexus between Theory and Practice of political marketing in Ethiopia by examining the perceptions of members of EPRDF and CUDP political party. A mixed approach with 248 and 304 usable samples were collected from top members of two political parties randomly and relevant data were gathered, presented and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The findings revealed that there was no formal marketing practice used by both parties and no department responsible for establishment of political marketing mix elements rather they seldom undertook conventionally by simply stand for what they believe, or focused on persuading voters to agree with their preplan ideas and policies which were relating with the selling concept and product concept.
Explaining Planetary-Rotation Periods Using an Inductive Method
Gizachew Tiruneh
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: This paper uses an inductive method to investigate the factors responsible for variations in planetary-rotation periods. I began by showing the presence of a correlation between the masses of planets and their rotation periods. Then I tested the impact of planetary radius, acceleration, velocity, and torque on rotation periods. I found that velocity, acceleration, and radius are the most important factors in explaining rotation periods. The effect of mass may be rather on influencing the size of the radii of planets. That is, the larger the mass of a planet, the larger its radius. Moreover, mass does also influence the strength of the rotational force, torque, which may have played a major role in setting the initial constant speeds of planetary rotation.
Age and Winning Professional Golf Tournaments
Gizachew Tiruneh
Statistics , 2009,
Abstract: Most professional golfers and analysts think that winning on the PGA Tour peaks when golfers are in their thirties. Rather than relying on educated guesses, we can actually use available statistical data to determine the actual ages at which golfers peak their golf game. We can also test the hypothesis that age affects winning professional golf tournaments. Using data available from the Golf Channel, the PGA Tour, and LPGA Tour, I calculated and provided the mean, the median, and the mode ages at which professional golfers on the PGA, European PGA, Champions, and LPGA Tours had won over a five-year period. More specifically, the ages at which golfers on the PGA, European PGA, Champions Tour, and LPGA Tours peak their wins are 35, 30, 52, and 25, respectively. The regression analyses I conducted seem to support my hypothesis that age affects winning professional golf tournaments.
Social determinants of under-five mortality in Ethiopia: Event history analysis using evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS)  [PDF]
Tariku Dejene, Eshetu Girma
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55115

Background: Under-five mortality is one of the indicators of the millennium development goals (MDGs) for the child mortality reduction goal. Understanding the social determinants of under-five mortality is helpful to narrow the gap between different social classes. Therefore, this study focused on the social determinants of under-five mortality inEthiopiausing EDHS 2011 data. Methods: The data source for this analysis was the 2011 EDHS which was undertaken over a five-month period from 27 December, 2010 to 3 June, 2011. The sample was selected using a stratified, two-stage cluster design. Samples of 16,515 women of reproductive age were interviewed. The questionnaire used to collect information from these women who had among other things such as background characteristics of women, birth history of these women and the survival of each birth at the time of the interview. Births that had occurred to women in the last 10 years prior to the date of the interview were extracted for the analysis. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the distribution of the characteristics of the data. Kaplan Meier plots and incidence rates per 1000 person years were used to compare survival across different categories of the risk factors. The effect of the risk factors on survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Data management and analysis were carried out using STATA 10. Results: A total of 23,581 under-five children were included in the study. The under-five mortality incidence rate in Ethiopia for the last ten years was 29.6 per 1000 person years. Maternal education beyond primary level of education reduced the risk of under-five mortality by about half. A significant reduction in risk of under-five mortality was observed among births to mothers residing in richest households. The hazard ratio (HR) was higher for under-five mortality among boys than daughters, twins than singleton, teen age mother than higher ages and short births than optimal. Conclusions: Empowering mothers with education and making them productive for improving their income are important aspects for reducing under-five mortality. Emerging regions were disadvantaged on the incidence of under-five mortality; however, there was a positive result in narrowing the urban-rural under-five

Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Girma Temam Shifa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611155
Abstract: Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2010 in 9 kebeles of Arba Minch Demographic and Health Development Program. Results: In this study, 28.3% of all women & 32.7% currently married were using any contraceptive methods during the time of the survey. Almost all current users were using modern methods; the most widely used method was injectable (24.2%) followed by implants (2.4%) and pills (1.3%). Current marital status, ethnicity, age, education, presence of radio set in the house hold and discussion about family planning in the last 6 month before the study with their partner were the independent predictors of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The contraceptive prevalence rate is promising but efforts should continue to further increase the contraceptive coverage especially on kebeles with low coverage by targeting men and misconceptions about family planning.
The Diversity and Composition of Woody Plants in Chebera Churcura National Park (CCNP), Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Mezmir Girma, Melesse Maryo
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84028
Abstract: National parks harbor the most valuable biological diversities of national and global significance. The study of these diversities assists for the proper resource management. This study was carried out to determine woody species diversity and composition in CCNP. Systematic sampling was used to collect vegetation data from 67 plots (400 m2 each), which were laid following altitudinal gradient. From each plot presence/absence of woody species, abundance and structural data were recorded. R Program, Sorensen’s similarity, Shannon diversity index were used for vegetation analysis. Our result indicated that a total of 106 plant specimens belonging to 42 families and 90 genera were identified, of which 57.6% were trees, followed by 18.8% shrubs, 7.6% liana and 16% tree/shrub. The three most dominant families were Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Combretaceae. Five vegetation community types were identified. Millettia ferugenia—Vepris danelii, and, Combrutum molle—Terminalia browni are among others. The tree density and basal area were 426.5 trees/hectare and 30.92 m2/hectare, respectively. The diversity and evenness indices were 3.88 and 0.46 for the study area, respectively. CCNP has more similarity with Bonga and Yayu afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Disturbances caused by the human activities and wild animals such as elephant were major threats to plant biodiversity in CCNP. We recommend floristic as well as ethnobotanical investigations to realize fully the existing plant diversity and their importance. Moreover, national attention should be given to ensure sustainable use of CCNP with its incredible biological resources.
Evaluation of Performances of Intermodal Import-Export Freight Transport System in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Kenea Amentae, Girma Gebresenbet
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81007
Abstract: Freight transport system that minimizes costs, increase conveniences, and environmentally safe has become the agenda worldwide since long before. This study was made with the main objective of assessing intermodal termed as “multimodal” freight transport service in Ethiopia. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire from randomly selected customers and multimodal freight transport section employees of Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Service Enterprise. The study was made in two stages using customers: first, they were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with the multimodal freight transport system; second, to evaluate their comparative satisfaction with the segmented/“uni-modal” freight transport system against five major freight transport performance indicators. Customers were also asked to identify and rank top ten problems of freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using SPSS and excel sheets with descriptive statistics and the results were depicted using charts and tables. The study indicated that majority of customers were either dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with many of the performance indicators. The employees evaluated their organization as well performing relatively on more performance indicators. Both customers and employees evaluated the documentation performances as satisfying but cost and convenience as dissatisfying performances. Customers identified repetitive custom checking and waste of time in custom inspections process as the most severe problem in freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. The implementation of intermodal freight transport system to bring better change in import-export freight transport logistics of Ethiopia was in bitter challenge for customers due to a number of problems, except documentation performance that showed betterment.
Assessment of drug utilization from prescribers and dispensers perspectives in selected towns of Amhara region, Ethiopia
Teferra Abula, Gizachew Ashagrie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Access to essential drugs and up-to-date information related to drugs are critical for optimal provision of health care, particularly in developing countries. However, the situation of drug utilization in Ethiopia is less than optimum and the scarcity of information about it has prompted the undertaking of this study. Objective: To assess the views of health professionals concerning the utilization of drugs in hospitals and retail drug outlets in some selected towns of north west Ethiopia. Methods: Structured questionnaires consisting of open- and close- ended questions on the availability, marketing and usage of drugs and related information were prepared and distributed to drug- prescribers and drug-dispensers. Forty Physicians and 20 drug-dispensers have responded to the questionnaires and their responses were analyzed. Results: The results demonstrated that availability of essential drugs and accessibility to up-to-date drug information was low. Cephalosporins were the most demanded but hardly available drugs. The view of most health professionals towards the usage of drugs was appropriate but the application of the code of Ethics by some drug dispensers, while dispensing and marketing pharmaceuticals was found to be unacceptable. Conclusion: Improving the availability of and accessibility to essential drugs as well as alternative drugs and up-to-date drug information with an application of the professional code of Ethics particularly in pharmacy profession are found to be crucial for optimal and rational phamacotherapy. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;(3):231-237
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