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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5997 matches for " Giuseppe Carrà "
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The association between expressed emotion, illness severity and subjective burden of care in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Findings from an Italian population
Giuseppe Carrà, Carlo Lorenzo Cazzullo, Massimo Clerici
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-140
Abstract: We performed secondary analyses of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Italy.High-EE relatives reported more subjective burden of care in disturbed behaviours and adverse effects areas, but did not perceive more deficits in social role performances. As regards illness severity characteristics, neither the number of previous hospital admissions nor the duration of illness was associated with high-EE. However, patients’ previous psychosocial functioning, as measured by educational attainments, seems to protect the relative from high-EE status.There is a need for cross-cultural comparisons of the subjective experience of distress and burden among high EE carers as a target for intervention, aimed at reducing family stress as much as improving patient outcomes.The roles of families in the care of people with schizophrenia and the ensuing caregiver burden have been increasingly acknowledged in the research literature in the last three decades [1,2]. The construct of burden of care has two distinct components [3]. Objective burden of care is meant to indicate its effects on the household (such as effects on health, financial loss and daily chores), whereas subjective burden indicates the extent to which the caregivers perceive the burden of care. Cultural factors likely play an important role in determining both the perceived burden and relatives’ attitudes towards patients. Their contributions to subjective burden of care and ethnic-related issues have been studied in several contexts in the last few years [4]. Family members in the US white population are significantly more likely than African Americans to feel subjectively burdened by, and have rejecting attitudes towards, their relatives with schizophrenia, as well as to be less tolerant of loss of a productive contributory role. On the other hand, African Americans seem to be less tolerant of disruptive psychotic behaviours [5,6]. Furthermore, US Hispanic families seem to be more accepting o
Depression after Stroke and Risk of Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Francesco Bartoli,Nicoletta Lillia,Annamaria Lax,Cristina Crocamo,Vittorio Mantero,Giuseppe Carrà,Elio Agostoni,Massimo Clerici
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/862978
Abstract: Background. Depression after stroke may have great burden on the likelihood of functional recovery and long-term outcomes. Objective. To estimate the association between depression after stroke and subsequent mortality. Methods. A systematic search of articles using PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were used as association measures for pooled analyses, based on random-effects models. Results. Thirteen studies, involving 59,598 subjects suffering from stroke (6,052 with and 53,546 without depression), had data suitable for meta-analysis. The pooled OR for mortality at followup in people suffering from depression after stroke was 1.22 (1.02–1.47). Subgroups analyses highlighted that only studies with medium-term followup (2–5 years) showed a statistically significant association between depression and risk of death. Four studies had data suitable for further analysis of pooled HR. The meta-analysis revealed a HR for mortality of 1.52 (1.02–2.26) among people with depression after stroke. Conclusions. Despite some limitations, this paper confirms the potential role of depression on post stroke mortality. The relationship between depression and mortality after stroke seems to be related to the followup duration. Further research is needed to clarify the nature of the association between depression after stroke and mortality. 1. Introduction Stroke represents the third most common cause of death in developed countries, following only coronary heart diseases and cancer [1]. It is frequently associated with higher risk for a wide range of physical and neuropsychological consequences [2, 3]. Although the importance of poststroke psychiatric comorbidity is currently well documented, it had been previously underestimated [4]. In the 1970s, the identification of mood disorders, especially depression, as specific complications following stroke introduced the concept that clinical depression after stroke could be an organic consequence of the brain damage rather than an understandable psychological reaction to motor disability [5, 6]. Since then, research on depression after stroke has gained momentum [7]. However, despite the large bulk of the literature which has been published on this topic, there is still uncertainty in relation to depression after stroke prevalence, etiology, and management. Although the risk of all depressive disorders was reported ranging from 25% to 79% among people suffering from a stroke [21], poststroke major depression prevalence ranged from 3% to 40% [22]. Data available from
Investigation into the potential use of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Methylglyoxal fibres as antibacterial wound dressing components
Sophie E. L. Bulman,Parikshit Goswami,Giuseppe Tronci,Stephen J. Russell,Chris Carr
Quantitative Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1177/0885328214556159
Abstract: As problems of antibiotic resistance increase, a continuing need for effective bioactive wound dressings is anticipated for the treatment of infected chronic wounds. Naturally derived antibacterial agents, such as Manuka honey, consist of a mixture of compounds, more than one of which can influence antimicrobial potency. The non-peroxide bacteriostatic properties of Manuka honey have been previously linked to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). The incorporation of MGO as a functional antibacterial additive during fibre production was explored as a potential route for manufacturing wound dressing components. Synthetic MGO and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were fabricated into webs of sub-micron fibres by means of electrostatic spinning of an aqueous spinning solution. Composite fabrics were also produced by direct deposition of the PVA-MGO fibres onto a preformed spunbonded nonwoven substrate. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (

1H-NMR) spectroscopies confirmed the presence of MGO within the resulting fibre structure. The antibacterial activity of the fibres was studied using strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Strong antibacterial activity, as well as diffusion of MGO from the fibres was observed at a concentration of 1.55mg/


A Pilot Study on the New USDA Meal Pattern for School Breakfast in a Sample of First-Grade Students  [PDF]
Noelle Carr, Sibylle Kranz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.39175
Abstract: Background: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently modified the school breakfast program (SBP) to improve children’s nutrition. Based on the new patterns, schools must offer larger amounts of fruits, grains, and proteins/meats to children; the amounts of fluid foods (milk and juice) remained the same. This study examined the effect of the new food pattern on student’s consumption and food cost. Methods: The amounts and cost of foods served and wasted for one week in first grade students attending two elementary schools (n = 812) were measured. One school received the current SBP pattern (control breakfast, average number of students attending breakfast n = 81), the other school’s breakfast reflected the proposed changes (test breakfast, n = 82). To test the hypothesis that the test breakfast leads to significantly increased food cost and food waste compared to the control breakfast, the weekly average amount of the served solid and fluid foods (grams and milliliters) as well as their waste were compared between the two groups using paired student’s t-test in STATA 11 (significance at p-value < 0.05). Results: Data confirmed the hypothesis in that the test breakfast was associated with significantly higher food cost (by approximately $100/week) and solid food waste but there was no change in milk and juice consumption. Conclusions: This exploratory study indicates that a significant portion of the additional foods served to first-graders to improve their nutritional status were not consumed but wasted. Further studies in larger samples and including students from all grades are needed to examine this issue fully.
Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  [PDF]
Paul H. Carr
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51A020

Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more doubled compared with the previous 15-year period. Extreme summer heat anomalies now cover about 10% of land area, up from 0.2% in 1950-1980. The human influence on global warming is evident from climate data and physical modeling. Since the beginning of the industrial era, carbon dioxide (CO2) increases correlate with those of temperature. Carbon dating shows that the CO2 increase is from burning ancient fossil fuels. Increasing CO2 and other greenhouse gases blanket and warm the earth’s surface, allowing less heat to reach the stratosphere, which is cooling. This is consistent with satellite measurements showing that solar irradiance is not changing. The present CO2 rate increase of 2 ppm/year is 300 times higher than the rate at which the earth recovered from the ice age 18,000 years ago. Without the radiative forcing of noncondensing persistent CO2, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound earth state. Will new technologies lower our carbon emissions in time to prevent more weather extremes? Electric cars now get the equivalent of 100 miles per gallon. The cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic cells has reached grid parity.

Supercritical Fluid Adsorption of Domperidone on Silica Aerogel  [PDF]
Giuseppe Caputo
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.33024

Silica aerogel (SA) was loaded with domperidone to demonstrate the potentiality of adsorption processes based on the usage of supercritical carbon dioxide to treat poorly water-soluble drugs, forming new kinds of drug delivery systems. The effects of pressure, temperature and solution concentration on loaded SA were studied. Adsorption isotherms were measured at 35and 45 and fitted with Langmuir model. Release kinetics of the adsorbed drug were also evaluated by in vitro dissolution tests. Results showed that domperidone can be uniformly dispersed into the aerogel and that the release rate of domperidone from the composite, constituted by drug and silica aerogel, is much faster than that of the crystalline drug. The proposed adsorption method is suitable for the production of domperidone fast release tablets.

Modeling and simulation in tissue biomechanics: Modern tools to face an ancient challenge  [PDF]
Giuseppe Vairo
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.612A001

This is the editorial for the specail issue on Modeling and Simulation in Tissue Biomechanics published in Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering

Archimedes’ Psammites and the Tradition of Italic Thought of Science  [PDF]
Giuseppe Boscarino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.41002
Abstract: It is intended to confute the opinion of a Platonic Archimedes, through the study of the fundamental theses of his Sandreckoner (Psammites) and of its particular logical-linguistic aspects, but especially of an Aristotelic Archimedes, as Delsedine (1970) maintains in his article “L’infini numérique dans l’Arénaire d’Archimède”. He writes: The Sandreckonerrépond à la nécessitè d’adapter la notation numérique à l’idée de l’infinité potentielle de l’ensamble des nombres naturales”1. First, it is focused on the general aspects of the work, which highlight its Enlightenment and Py-thagorean—Democritean character, then it is passed to the analysis of its particular linguistic and logical aspects and of its fundamental theses, translated into symbolic form, in which it is still giving prominence to its Pythagorean-Democritean or Italic character (Boscarino, 1999, 2010, 2011, 2012).
Archimedes’ to Eratosthenes in the Palimpsest and Archimedes in Heron’s Metrikon  [PDF]
Giuseppe Boscarino
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.45025
Abstract: It is argued that even with some new readings made by the publication of the Letter to Eratosthenes in the Archimedes Palimpsest, with the wonderful discovery of his so-called “mechanical method” (a certain way of theorizing in mathematical things by means of mechanical entities) at the beginning of the twentieth century, some important historical-philological and philosophicalepistemological issues still remain, which have already discussed in part in my writings. We produce some important testimonies taken from Metrikon by Heron of Alexandria in favour of our translations and interpretations of Archimedes’ lexicon, not without placing under investigation at the same time the personality and the importance of Hero in the history of philosophical, scientific and technological Greek-Hellenistic thought in line with Archimedes and the tradition of Italic thought of science (The quotations of the Greek texts of Archimedes, Heron and Pappus are my translations).
Endogenous Ranking in the Two-Sector Urn-Ball Matching Process  [PDF]
Giuseppe Rose
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.83024
Abstract: This paper contributes to the debate concerning micro-foundations of matching functions in frictional labor markets. The focus is on a particular matching regime, i.e., the so-called urn-ball process. It is shown that in a twosector economy, even in the presence of heterogeneous workers, the assumption of applicants-ranking may be misleading. Instead, the choice concerning the adoption of either ranking or no-ranking behavior is endogenous and it is affected by both the tightness of the two sectors and the composition of the labor force in terms of skills. Moreover it is proved that exogenous shocks may change the form of the matching function. This result casts additional doubts on the assumption of exogenous matching function often made in empirical works aimed at assessing the effectiveness of policy measures.
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