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The prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among school children in Babile town, eastern Ethiopia
Girum Tadesse
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Global Transcriptional Analysis of Spontaneous Sakacin P-Resistant Mutant Strains of Listeria monocytogenes during Growth on Different Sugars
Girum Tadesse Tessema,Trond M?retr?,Lars Snipen,Lars Axelsson,Kristine Naterstad
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016192
Abstract: Subclass IIa bacteriocins have strong antilisterial activity and can control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in food. However, L. monocytogenes may develop resistance towards such bacteriocins. In this follow-up study, the transcriptomes of a high level (L502-1) and a low level (L502-6) spontaneous sakacin P-resistant mutant strain of L. monocytogenes were compared to the wild-type (L502). The growth of the resistant strains was reduced on mannose but not affected on cellobiose and the transcriptomics was performed during growth on these sugars. The mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) encoded by the mptACD operon (mpt) is known for transporting mannose and also act as a receptor to class IIa bacteriocins. The mpt was repressed in L502-1 and this is in accordance with abolition of the bacteriocin receptor with resistance to class IIa bacteriocins. In contrast, the mpt was induced in L502-6. Despite the induction of the mpt, L502-6 showed 1,000 times more resistance phenotype and reduced growth on mannose suggesting the mannose-PTS may not be functional in L502-6. The microarray data suggests the presence of other transcriptional responses that may be linked to the sakacin P resistance phenotype particularly in L502-6. Most of commonly regulated genes encode proteins involved in transport and energy metabolism. The resistant strains displayed shift in general carbon catabolite control possibly mediated by the mpt. Our data suggest that the resistant strains may have a reduced virulence potential. Growth sugar- and mutant-specific responses were also revealed. The two resistant strains also displayed difference in stability of the sakacin P resistance phenotype, growth in the presence of both the lytic bacteriophage P100 and activated charcoal. Taken together, the present study showed that a single time exposure to the class IIa bacteriocin sakacin P may elicit contrasting phenotypic and transcriptome responses in L. monocytogenes possibly through regulation of the mpt.
Treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Sebsibe Tadesse, Takele Tadesse
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65044

Evaluating the outcomes of DOTS program is essential for recognizing and amending system failures before the incidence and proportion of resistant isolates rise. In this study, we seek to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis treatment success rate in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. Medical records of 1305 pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients registered from 2007 to 2012 at two health centers in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia, were reviewed. Treatment outcomes and forms of tuberculosis were assessed according to WHO guidelines. Descriptive analyses were performed using frequencies and percentages. Treatment success rate was observed in 1146 (87.8%) patients. Out of these, 534 (89.1%) of the males and 612 (86.7%) of the females were successfully treated. It was also true in 338 (87.8%) of the smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 473 (85.7%) of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and 335 (91.0%) of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients. In conclusion, treatment success rate in the current study was slightly higher than the WHO international updated target for the period 2011 to 2015. However, this doesn’t mean that there will be no need for further enhancement of supervision and monitoring techniques, strengthening counseling and health education programs, and improving the quality of laboratory diagnostic services.

Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Community and Importance of Camel and other Livestock Species in Tahitay-Adiyabo District, Tigray Region in the Northern Periphery of Ethiopia  [PDF]
Yosef Tadesse
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2019.92019
Abstract: The study was undertaken in the northern periphery of the country, Tigray region, north-west Tigray zone, Tahitay Adiyabo district from February to March, 2017. For this study, four Kebeles were selected purposively based on the presence of two major community groups (Tigrayans and Kunama) and presence of camel species and other livestock species. Seventy-two (72) households per district, of which 38 households from two kebeles for Kunama community and 34 households from two kebeles for Tigrayan community groups were selected randomly. A software package of SAS (2008) was employed to generate descriptive statistics for qualitative and quantitative data. As the study revealed, three-fifth and two-fifth of the respondents in the study area were illiterate and attended primary education respectively. The two community groups were significantly (P < 0.05) different on educational status and Tigriyans respondents were more educated than the other counterpart. More than 2/3 children (7 - 17 years of age) of the respondents in the study area were attended school. Exceptionally, more than 75% of the children for Tigriyan community group in the district were attended school whereas 3/5th of Kunama community children were attended school education. Average family size per household in the study area was 6.22 ±
Computational Model for Internal Relative Humidity Distributions in Concrete
Wondwosen Ali,Girum Urgessa
Journal of Computational Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/539850
Abstract: A computational model is developed for predicting nonuniform internal relative humidity distribution in concrete. Internal relative humidity distribution is known to have a direct effect on the nonuniform drying shrinkage strains. These nonuniform drying shrinkage strains result in the buildup of internal stresses, which may lead to cracking of concrete. This may be particularly true at early ages of concrete since the concrete is relatively weak while the difference in internal relative humidity is probably high. The results obtained from this model can be used by structural and construction engineers to predict critical drying shrinkage stresses induced due to differential internal humidity distribution. The model uses finite elment-finite difference numerical methods. The finite element is used to space discretization while the finite difference is used to obtain transient solutions of the model. The numerical formulations are then programmed in Matlab. The numerical results were compared with experimental results found in the literature and demonstrated very good agreement. 1. Introduction Cracking is detrimental to the serviceability, durability, and the aesthetic quality of concrete structures. A major driving force behind cracking is the nonuniform early-age drying shrinkage [1]. Drying shrinkage can be defined as the volume reduction that concrete suffers as a consequence of the moisture migration when exposed to a lower relative humidity environment than the initial one in its own pore system. During production of concrete, more water is added to the concrete mix than necessary for hydration for the sake of workability. This leads to having two types of moisture in concrete. The first type is structural water, chemically bound within the cement paste. As the concrete hydrates, some shrinkage takes place in absence of additional water as hydration takes up some free water. This shrinkage is referred to as autogenous shrinkage and is typically about 50 to 100 microstrains [2]. The second type is the excess water that does not take part in the hydration product and as a consequence it will not be chemically bound to the solid phase. This water is contained in the pore structures. Drying shrinkage in concrete is due to drying of the water contained in the pore structures and the associated decrease in moisture content. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the moisture loss as accurately as possible in order to study drying shrinkage in concrete members. Accurate prediction of drying shrinkage in concrete requires knowledge of the concrete
Development of laser-based heart sound detection system  [PDF]
Jing Bai, Girum Sileshi, Glenn Nordehn, Stanley Burns, Lorentz Wittmers
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.51005
Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the prototype of a new stethoscope using laser technology to make the heart-beat signal “visible”. This heartbeat detection technique could overcome the limitation of the acoustic stethoscope brought by the poor ability of human ear to hear low frequency heart sounds. This is important, as valuable information from sub-audio sounds is present at frequencies below the range of human hearing. Moreover, the diagnostic accuracy of the acoustic stethoscope is also very sensitive to noise from immediate environment. In the prototype of laser-based stethoscope, the heartbeat signal is correlated to the optical spot of a laser beam reflected from a thin mirror attached to the patient’s chest skin. The motion of the mirror with the chest skin is generated by the heart sounds. A linear optical sensor is applied to detect and record the motion of the optical spot, from which the heartbeat signal in time-domain is extracted. The heartbeat signal is then transformed to frequency domain through digital signal processing. Both time-domain and frequency-domain signals are analyzed in order to classify different type of heart murmurs. In the prototype of the laser-based stethoscope, we use a heart-sound box to simulate the chest of a human being. The heart-sounds collected from real patients are applied to activate the vibration of the heart-sound box. We also analyze different heart murmur patterns based on the time-domain and frequency-domain heartbeat signals acquired from the optical system.
Current Status, and Correlates of Abortion among Rural Women of Gonji Kollela District, Northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Girum Meseret, Molla Gedefaw, Resom Berhe, Adane Nigusie
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52018
Abstract: Background: Evidences indicate that unsafe abortion is one of the most important causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. Ethiopia strives to curb maternal mortality. Hence, current data on abortion, and its correlates are required. Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of abortion among women of reproductive age (15 - 49 years) in rural kebeles of Gonji Kolela District. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 611 women in six rural kebeles of Gonji Kolela District, Northwest Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and obstetric histories. The data were checked for completeness and cross-checked for accuracy and consistency. Result: The overall prevalence of abortion was 12% (10.9% spontaneous and 1.1% induced). Of these, 12.3% of them had experienced abortion more than once. Most of abortion took place at home, no medical care. The most important predictor of abortion was educational status. Those women whose educational attainment was primary and above were 2.4 times more likely to experience abortion than those who were not able to read and write (AOR [95%CI] = 2.4 [1.13 - 5.10]). Most women attributed abortion to work overload. Conclusion: Abortion is high among rural women. Recommendation: Mechanism should be devised to educate the community about care to pregnant women. Why abortion is high among women who have visited school warrants further research.
GIS Based Soil Loss Estimation Using RUSLE Model: The Case of Jabi Tehinan Woreda, ANRS, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Amsalu, Abebe Mengaw
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.511054
Soil degradation in the form of soil erosion is a serious and continuous environmental problem in Jabi Tehinan Woreda. Uncontrolled land use, deforestation, over cultivation, overgrazing and exploitation of biomass for firewood, construction and other household uses due to increasing population ultimately lead to severe soil erosion. The impact of natural hazards like erosion can be minimized and ultimately controlled by disaster preparedness maps. Therefore, the overall objective of this paper is to quantify and map an estimated soil loss by examining different topographic and anthropogenic factors for the planning and implementations of sustainable soil conservation and management system in the study area. This study had integrated Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques to quantify and map erosion vulnerable areas using RUSLE model. Slope gradient, slope length, soil type, soil conservations techniques, cover management and rainfall variables were used as input model parameters/variables. The data had been collected and analyzed from different land sat imageries, SRTM data, topomaps and point interpolations of primary data. Finally, the aggregated effects of all parameters had been analyzed and soil loss from the area was calculated using RUSEL models. After analyzing all model parameters, areas in steeper slope with Lithosols, Eutric Nitosols, Orthic Luvisols, croplands, bare lands and river banks have been identified as the most erosion vulnerable areas. Quantitatively, an estimated annual soil loss in Jabi Tehinan Woreda ranges from nearly 0 in south and central parts of the area to 504.6 t/ha/yr in steeply sloping mountainous areas of the north and north-eastern parts of the catchments.
Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in Superconducting HoMo6S8  [PDF]
Tadesse Desta, Gebregziabher Kahsay
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.51004
Abstract: This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the superconducting HoMo6S8. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and using the Green’s function formalism and equation of motion method, we have obtained expressions for superconducting transition temperature (Tc), magnetic order temperature (Tm), superconductivity order parameter (D) and magnetic order parameter (η). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of energy gap parameter versus transition temperature, superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter are plotted separately. By combining the phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in superconducting HoMo6S8.<
Contributing Factors to Long Working Hours: Case Study of Waiters in Dire Dawa Administration  [PDF]
Gizachew Girma, Tadesse Moges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.63017
Abstract: The need to create and maintain industrial peace, in one hand, protect the fragile interest of workers on the other side to boost economic development have been critical issues which have attained significant consideration from states. To that end, they introduced at international and national levels different set of legislations regulating employment relations. Among other things, working time limit has meticulously been introduced to safeguard the rights of workers, who are generally with the lesser bargaining power, and make the labor more productive. Ethiopia has accepted this notion of delimitating working hours, and adopted legislations. However, it has become a public secret that such rules have not been maintained in practice and that the enforcement mechanism appeared meager. Though researches have been made in different part of the world; in Ethiopia, particularly in Dire Dawa, the factors contributing for long working hours have not been addressed. There are, however, indicators that particularly waiters are working for longer hours than what the law stipulates. In a town dubbed as industrial corner, this factor should not be left unconsidered if the aspired objective of the labour regulation is really to be met. This research, hence, took the first step in studying the existence of this violation, and investigating the contributing factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires and interviews, and samples were taken using stratified systematic sampling method. Data were analyzed through quantitative (descriptive analysis and logistic regression model) and qualitative techniques. Then, job insecurity, lack of legal awareness, culture of the work, salary, tips, dependents, and level of education have been found out to be contributing factors, and their level of significance has also been established. It has also revealed that the absence of strong enforcement mechanisms contributed for the apparent non-adherence to the rules so delimiting working hours.
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