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Coffee Wilt Disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in Forest Coffee Systems of Southwest and Southeast Ethiopia
Sihen Getachew,Girma Adugna,Fikre Lemessa,H. Hindorf
Plant Pathology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing the disease in four major forests coffee sites in southwest and southeast Ethiopia are discussed. In each forest coffee site, coffee wilt syndrome was assessed in three systematically selected sample plots during dry and wet seasons of 2008 and 2009. Concurrently, three to four samples of infected coffee trees were randomly collected from each plot and the causal pathogen was isolated and identified in the laboratory. The result indicted that CWD was prevalent in the four forest coffee sites, with mean incidence of 27.1 and 29.2% in Harenna during 2008 and 2009 wet seasons, respectively, followed by Berhane-Kontir with mean incidences of 22.1 (2008) and 27.7% (2009). Whereas, Bonga and Yayu forest coffees had comparatively low wilt severity (<10%). The wood samples of most of the infected coffee trees (90.6%) yielded Gibberella xylarioides in the laboratory proving that this pathogen is the main cause of coffee tree death in the forest. The difference in incidence of CWD across the four sites and among fields was strongly associated with human factors and variations in coffee populations. The forest coffee trees in Harenna and Berhane-Kontir (high CWD) are almost transformed to semiforest type by sub-planting coffee seedlings after thinning the dense vegetation cover. These activities are known to create wound to the host and disseminate the fungus spores from tree to tree and from one field to the other. The two independent seedling inoculation tests in the greenhouse evidenced that there were significant variations among coffee accessions in reactions to CWD though most accessions were susceptible. The study showed that CWD is one of the potential biotic factors threatening the genetic diversity of Arabica coffee in most forest coffee sites and thus the disease management practices should duly be considered in planning and implementing forest coffee conservation strategy.
Three-Objective Programming with Continuous Variable Genetic Algorithm  [PDF]
Adugna Fita
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.521307
Abstract: The subject area of multiobjective optimization deals with the investigation of optimization problems that possess more than one objective function. Usually, there does not exist a single solution that optimizes all functions simultaneously; quite the contrary, we have solution set that is called nondominated set and elements of this set are usually infinite. It is from this set decision made by taking elements of nondominated set as alternatives, which is given by analysts. Since it is important for the decision maker to obtain as much information as possible about this set, our research objective is to determine a well-defined and meaningful approximation of the solution set for linear and nonlinear three objective optimization problems. In this paper a continuous variable genetic algorithm is used to find approximate near optimal solution set. Objective functions are considered as fitness function without modification. Initial solution was generated within box constraint and solutions will be kept in feasible region during mutation and recombination.
Reimaging Ethiopia through Destination Branding  [PDF]
Mulugeta Girma
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.62019
Abstract: As the name of a country is negatively seen due to certain unpleasant incidents, re-imaging is obviously important and Ethiopia is affected by early derogatory histories which force the modern readers and viewers conception to be shaped by stories of wars and natural disasters including famine crisis that highly affect the destination brands especially the re-imaging effort. On this regard, Ethiopia was analyzed from the context of the tourists and some concerned organization so as to identify the possibility of re-imaging the country by using destination branding practices. To meet the goal, the study used mixed research approach and samples of 368 respondents were selected randomly to fill the questionnaires and out of it, 316 of them were collected and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics accordingly to test the hypothesis and reach the conclusions. The output reflects the destination marketing facts and insights in general, and recommendations are provided on how to re-image Ethiopia through destination branding which can be possible using branding techniques that could bring significant changes over stereotypes developed because of incidents that happen in the past.
Political Marketing: Exploring the Nexus between Theory and Practice in Ethiopia (Comparative Study between Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front and Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party)  [PDF]
Mulugeta Girma
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.42035
Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to explore the Nexus between Theory and Practice of political marketing in Ethiopia by examining the perceptions of members of EPRDF and CUDP political party. A mixed approach with 248 and 304 usable samples were collected from top members of two political parties randomly and relevant data were gathered, presented and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The findings revealed that there was no formal marketing practice used by both parties and no department responsible for establishment of political marketing mix elements rather they seldom undertook conventionally by simply stand for what they believe, or focused on persuading voters to agree with their preplan ideas and policies which were relating with the selling concept and product concept.
Assessment of yield stability in sorghum
A Adugna
African Crop Science Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)) is the third major cereal crop in Ethiopia in terms of area and production next to tef (Eragrostis tef) and maize (Zea mays). It is the major crop in drought stressed lowland areas that cover 66% of the total arable land in the country. Yield stability is one of the setbacks facing plant breeders in developing widely adapted varieties with superior yield. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of genotype by environment (GxE) on the yield stability of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using fifteen genotypes in eight environments (Locations x years combination). There were significant differences among the genotypes, the environments and GxE interactions. Thus, the three types of univariate stability models: Type-1 (CVi and S2i), Type-2 (W2i, s2i, and bi) and Type-3 (Sd2i) were compared for ranking of the genotypes. The parameters of W2i and si2 had perfect positive correlation (r=1.0) and strong positive correlation with bi (r=0.80),but either weak or no correlation with the rest of the parameters. Similarly, CVi and S2 i had strong rank correlation(r=0.97) but both had either very weak or no rank correlation with the rest of the parameters tested. The Sd2 i had very weak negative correlation with the remaining parameters. Based on the three stability statistics, the different genotypes were classified as stable. To compliment and verify findings of this univariate approach, the GxE which uses a mulivariate approach was used. The multivariate approach (AMMI model) gives a broader inference. Based on the AMMI model, genotypes 2 and 5 were the most stable, although genotypes 1 and 3 had satisfactory levels of yield performance as well as stability. Therefore, these four genotypes with wider adaptation are recommended for sorghum growing dry lowlands of the country.
Behavior of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Male Sterilized with Cytoplasmic-genetic and Chemical Systems and Their Impact in Hybrid Seed Production
Asfaw Adugna
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In this study the two pollination control systems, i.e. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) and the use of Chemical Hybridizing Agents (CHA), were compared to discover their efficiency for the sterility reaction and their impacts in hybrid seed production. The result has shown that both systems were equally effective in their sterility performance. However, CHA resulted in reduced out crossing percentage due to female sterility, germination percentage and hundred seed weight of the hybrid seed due to toxicity. Overall the CMS system was better than the CHA system (based on the particular CHA used in this study) for attributes related to hybrid seed production.
Alternate Approaches in Deploying Genes for Disease Resistance in Crop Plants
Asfaw Adugna
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Plant breeders are much concerned about the durability of the resistance gene(s) that they are incorporating into the better performing backgrounds to tolerate biotic stresses. While resistance that is controlled by a single major gene (vertical resistance) is simple to achieve, the one controlled by poly genes (horizontal resistance) is not. There are a number of ways to make the non-durable resistance genes durable. Comprehensively, the exploitation of genes with known durability, the use of quantitative resistance and the use of gene deployment are suggested to be some of them that can lead to the better ways of achieving durability of resistance. There are also various approaches of deploying genes to achieve durability of resistance. Therefore, to realize durability of disease resistance genes in crop plants any one of the approaches that are dealt in this study can be used without compromising their economic feasibility.
Untied efforts: The challenges for improved research, extension and education linkages
Adugna Eneyew
Abstract: Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by smallholders farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. Research, extension, education and farmers are the main pillars of agricultural knowledge systems and their effectiveness largely depends on strong linkage among each other. However, the existing research-extension-education linkage has not been effective. This very weak linkage has been a major limiting factor to increased food productivity, agricultural transformation and sustainable development. Thus, the purpose of this review is to point out the major challenges for effective linkage between Research, Extension and Education (REE) and propose some recommendations for better linkages. Much of the problems bounce around limited implementation capacity and lack of commitment. Specific challenges include unnecessary competition and duplication of efforts, lack of decentralized approach, failure to involve poor farmers and inefficient monitoring and evaluation system. Thus, policy framework that synergizes the relevant actors’ linkage in a sustainable manner should be in place to bring the intended growth and transformation in agriculture through technology and innovation.
Social determinants of under-five mortality in Ethiopia: Event history analysis using evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS)  [PDF]
Tariku Dejene, Eshetu Girma
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.55115

Background: Under-five mortality is one of the indicators of the millennium development goals (MDGs) for the child mortality reduction goal. Understanding the social determinants of under-five mortality is helpful to narrow the gap between different social classes. Therefore, this study focused on the social determinants of under-five mortality inEthiopiausing EDHS 2011 data. Methods: The data source for this analysis was the 2011 EDHS which was undertaken over a five-month period from 27 December, 2010 to 3 June, 2011. The sample was selected using a stratified, two-stage cluster design. Samples of 16,515 women of reproductive age were interviewed. The questionnaire used to collect information from these women who had among other things such as background characteristics of women, birth history of these women and the survival of each birth at the time of the interview. Births that had occurred to women in the last 10 years prior to the date of the interview were extracted for the analysis. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the distribution of the characteristics of the data. Kaplan Meier plots and incidence rates per 1000 person years were used to compare survival across different categories of the risk factors. The effect of the risk factors on survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Data management and analysis were carried out using STATA 10. Results: A total of 23,581 under-five children were included in the study. The under-five mortality incidence rate in Ethiopia for the last ten years was 29.6 per 1000 person years. Maternal education beyond primary level of education reduced the risk of under-five mortality by about half. A significant reduction in risk of under-five mortality was observed among births to mothers residing in richest households. The hazard ratio (HR) was higher for under-five mortality among boys than daughters, twins than singleton, teen age mother than higher ages and short births than optimal. Conclusions: Empowering mothers with education and making them productive for improving their income are important aspects for reducing under-five mortality. Emerging regions were disadvantaged on the incidence of under-five mortality; however, there was a positive result in narrowing the urban-rural under-five

Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Girma Temam Shifa
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611155
Abstract: Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2010 in 9 kebeles of Arba Minch Demographic and Health Development Program. Results: In this study, 28.3% of all women & 32.7% currently married were using any contraceptive methods during the time of the survey. Almost all current users were using modern methods; the most widely used method was injectable (24.2%) followed by implants (2.4%) and pills (1.3%). Current marital status, ethnicity, age, education, presence of radio set in the house hold and discussion about family planning in the last 6 month before the study with their partner were the independent predictors of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The contraceptive prevalence rate is promising but efforts should continue to further increase the contraceptive coverage especially on kebeles with low coverage by targeting men and misconceptions about family planning.
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