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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401268 matches for " Gina M. Alvino "
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A Natural Polymorphism in rDNA Replication Origins Links Origin Activation with Calorie Restriction and Lifespan
Elizabeth X. Kwan,Eric J. Foss,Scott Tsuchiyama,Gina M. Alvino,Leonid Kruglyak,Matt Kaeberlein,M. K. Raghuraman,Bonita J. Brewer,Brian K. Kennedy,Antonio Bedalov
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003329
Abstract: Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics.
The Physiological Response during Divergent Thinking  [PDF]
Gareth H. Loudon, Gina M. Deininger
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.61004
Abstract: Our research studied the physiological response of participants during a creative task to investigate if a person’s psychophysiological state was correlated with divergent thinking performance. We used heart rate variability as our physiological measure. We asked 50 participants to perform a cognitive task that assessed their divergent thinking skills and recorded their heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during the task. Frequency domain analysis was performed on the HRV. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between log-transformed low frequency HRV power and the number of “divergent thinking” words generated. Our results suggest that a person’s psychophysiological state is correlated with their divergent thinking performance, and that attention and motivation may be important factors, however this needs further research. Our findings also suggest that being in a relaxed state before the start of a creative task is not a predictor of creative performance.
The Physiological Response to Drawing and Its Relation to Attention and Relaxation  [PDF]
Gareth H. Loudon, Gina M. Deininger
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.73011
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the physiological response of participants during a creative activity and compare the results to their physiological response during states of high attention and relaxation. Our interest was not only about the relationship between creativity and attention, but also about the role of valence and arousal. We used heart rate variability (HRV) as our physiological measure. We asked twenty-two participants to undertake three activities: a stroop test; a relaxation activity; and a drawing activity. After each activity, the participants were asked to reflect on their levels of attention, relaxation and enjoyment. The results showed significant physiological differences between the three activities: mean heart rate, F(2, 42) = 8.96, p = 0.001; log-transformed low frequency HRV power, F(1.43, 30.07) = 18.12, p < 0.001; and log-transformed high frequency HRV power, F(2, 42) = 6.25, p = 0.004. Overall, the results suggested that participants had high levels of attention during the drawing activity, with positive valence. The results also suggested that participants’ levels of arousal differed between the three activities. The implications of these results are described in the discussion.
Hysteresis loops of the magnetoconductance in graphene devices
A. Candini,C. Alvino,W. Wernsdorfer,M. Affronte
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.121401
Abstract: We report very low temperature magnetoconductance DeltaG measurements on graphene devices with the magnetic field H applied parallel to the carbon sheet. The DeltaG(H) signal depends on the gate voltage Vg and its sign is related with the universal conductance fluctuations. When the magnetic field is swept at fast rates, DeltaG displays hysteresis loops evident for different sizes and at different transport regimes of the devices. We attribute this to the magnetization reversal of paramagnetic centres in graphene layer, which might originate from defects in our devices.
Introduction: Puerto Ricans in Chicago
Gina M. Pérez
Centro Journal , 2001,
An upbeat west side story: Puerto Ricans and postwar racial politics in Chicago
Gina M. Pérez
Centro Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Chicago Puerto Ricans have inhabited a number of ideological positions since their arrival en asse in the late 1940s, ranging from their short-lived tenure as the city's "model" minority in the 1950s and 1960s and, eventually, to their membership in urban America's alleged "culture of poverty" and "underclass". Using historical and ethnographic data, this article analyzes the different ways in which Chicago Puerto Ricans have been portrayed and imagined differently over time; explores the role of the state in constructing and disseminating particular constructions of Puerto Rican migrants in Chicago; and demonstrates how varying constructions of Puerto Ricans are related to both their shifting location in Chicago's political economy as well as their relationship vis-à-vis ethnic and racial and ethnic Others in the city.
Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor over-expression induces proliferation and anti-apoptotic signaling in a three-dimensional culture model of breast epithelial cells
Gina M Yanochko, Walter Eckhart
Breast Cancer Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1392
Abstract: Pooled, stable MCF-10A breast epithelial cells expressing wild-type IGFIR or kinase-dead IGFIR (K1003A) were generated using retroviral-mediated gene transfer. The effects of over-expression of wild-type or kinase-dead IGFIR on breast epithelial cell biology were analyzed by confocal microscopy of three-dimensional cultures. The contribution of signaling pathways downstream of IGFIR activation to proliferation and apoptosis were determined by pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) with LY294002, MAP kinase kinase (MEK) with UO126 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with rapamycin.We found that MCF-10A cells over-expressing the IGFIR formed large, misshapen acinar structures with filled lumina and disrupted apico-basal polarization. This phenotype was ligand-dependent, occurring with IGF-I or supraphysiological doses of insulin, and did not occur in cells over-expressing the kinase-dead receptor. We observed increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of Ser473 of Akt and Ser2448 of mTOR throughout IGFIR structures. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 or MEK with UO126 prevented the development of acinar structures from IGFIR-expressing but not control cells. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin failed to prevent IGFIR-induced hyperproliferation and survival signaling.Increased proliferation and survival signaling as well as loss of apico-basal polarity by IGFIR activation in mammary epithelial cells may promote early lesions of breast cancer. Three-dimensional cultures of MCF-10A cells over-expressing the IGFIR are a useful model with which to study the role of IGFIR signaling in breast cancer progression and for characterizing the effects of chemotherapeutics targeted to IGFIR signaling.Cycles of proliferation and invasion followed by massive apoptosis are central to the physiology of the mammary gland. The branching ductal architecture develops postnatally in response to hormone stimulation during puberty, but
Retrospective Assessments of Childhood Psychopathology by Adults and Their Parents  [PDF]
Frederick L. Coolidge, Gina M. Tambone, Robert L. Durham, Daniel L. Segal
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23026
Abstract: The present study compared retrospective personality and psychopathological assessments of adults about their childhood and adolescence with concurrent assessments by one of their parents. One-hundred three college stu-dents (Mage = 23.1 years) and one of their parents (Mage = 51.2 years) completed a retrospective version of the 200-item, parent-as-respondent, Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (R-CPNI). The median internal scale reliabilities (Cronbach’s α) for all 46 scales of the R-CPNI were substantial for the adult retrospec-tive (α = 0.78) and the parent retrospective versions (α = 0.79), and there was a strong correlation between the adult and parent retrospective scale reliabilities (r = 0.88). To evaluate group differences, t tests revealed that the parent means were significantly lower than the adult means on 45 of the 46 scales with mostly large effect sizes. Principal components analyses of the scales for both adult and parent retrospective versions were strongly and positively correlated (r = 0.88) for the total number of components extracted. These findings appear to support the contention that retrospective assessments tend to be reliable and valid and that parents’ retrospective recol-lections of their children’s psychopathology tend to be more positive than the retrospective reports by the adults. Based on these preliminary findings, it appears that the R-CPNI may provide a unique and interesting tool for the retrospective measurement of psychopathology.
Choice of population structure informative principal components for adjustment in a case-control study
Gina M Peloso, Kathryn L Lunetta
BMC Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-12-64
Abstract: We found that when the SNP and phenotype frequencies do not vary over the sub-populations, all methods of selection provided similar power and appropriate Type I error for association. When the SNP is not structured and the phenotype has large structure, then selection methods that do not select PCs for inclusion as covariates generally provide the most power. When there is a structured SNP and a non-structured phenotype, selection methods that include PCs in the model have greater power. When both the SNP and the phenotype are structured, all methods of selection have similar power.Standard practice is to include a fixed number of PCs in genome-wide association studies. Based on our findings, we conclude that if power is not a concern, then selecting the same set of top PCs for adjustment for all SNPs in logistic regression is a strategy that achieves appropriate Type I error. However, standard practice is not optimal in all scenarios and to optimize power for structured SNPs in the presence of unstructured phenotypes, PCs that are associated with the tested SNP should be included in the logistic model.The principal components (PCs) of genome-wide genotype data can be used to detect and adjust for population structure in genetic association analyses [1,2]. The popularity of the PC method is evident by its wide use: it has been cited by over 400 publications. However, the choice of which PCs to use and the best way to adjust for the PCs in analyses of dichotomous traits is not yet clear.Numerous methods have been proposed to adjust for structure once PCs are computed (Table 1). The simplest and most straightforward approach is to adjust for continuous PCs in a regression model. Kimmel et al [3] note that principal component analysis (PCA) is sufficient for identifying population structure, but adjusting for PCs as covariates in a model may not always eliminate false positive associations since the PCs are only an estimate of the population structure. Furthermore, Yu
Impacto das institui??es estaduais na unidade das coaliz?es parlamentares no Brasil
Carey, John M.;Reinhardt, Gina Yannitell;
Dados , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0011-52582003000400005
Abstract: research on political institutions suggests that sub-national factors affect the proclivity of legislators from the same party or coalition to vote together. we estimate the effects of such forces operating at the state-level - intra-list electoral competition, and alliance with governors. we propose that larger cohorts, in which the imperative for legislators to distinguish themselves from the group is stronger, should be less unified than smaller cohorts. we also derive from theoretical hypotheses that cohorts allied with governors may be either more or less unified than other cohorts. we analyze unity among coalition cohorts on recorded floor votes in the brazilian chamber of deputies. we find support for the hypothesis that larger cohorts are less unified, but detect no net effect of alliance with governors on cohort voting unity. governors are not dominant brokers of legislative coalitions, suggesting that the net gubernatorial effect is contingent on factors that shape their influence relative to national-level legislative actors.
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