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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402405 matches for " Gillian M Hunt "
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Lifestyle in adults aged 35 years who were born with open spina bifida: prospective cohort study
Gillian M Hunt, Pippa Oakeshott
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1743-8454-1-4
Abstract: Ascertainment was 100%. There had been 63 deaths, mainly of the most severely affected. The mean age of the 54 survivors was 35 years. The outcome in terms of disability ranged from apparent normality to total dependency. It reflected both the neurological deficit, which had been recorded in infancy in terms of sensory level, and events in the CSF shunt history. Overall about 2 in 5 of the survivors lived independently in the community, 2 in 5 drove a car, 1 in 5 was in competitive employment and 1 in 5 could walk 50 metres.Although those who survived to age 35 years tended to be less disabled, 2 in 5 continued to need daily care.Neurosurgical intervention in babies with open spina bifida had dramatic results in terms of survival. However, the disability and the complications of the survivors were often severe [1-5]. Many efforts were made to enable them to walk, to control their urinary incontinence while safeguarding renal function, and to overcome problems associated with the shunt treatment of hydrocephalus. Promising new methods of management, such as the psoas transplant, urinary diversion and artificial urinary sphincters, which seemed highly successful in the short term, lost favour after 10 or 15 years because of disappointing long-term results. In this unsteady course of progress it is helpful to have a long term follow up of a complete cohort of patients with open spina bifida as a realistic basis for helping parents facing the difficult decisions about termination of an affected pregnancy or treatment after birth.In 1963 the Regional Neurosurgical Unit at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, England offered treatment to all cases of open spina bifida, without any attempt at selection. Between 1963 and 1971, after a detailed neurological examination, 117 babies (50 male, 67 female) had their open spinal defects closed within 48 hours of birth. A ventriculo-atrial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt was inserted for hydrocephalus when required.In 2002 all surviv
Open questions: missing pieces from the immunological jigsaw puzzle
Griffiths Gillian M
BMC Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-11-10
Global Diversity and Review of Siphonophorae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)
Gillian M. Mapstone
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087737
Abstract: In this review the history of discovery of siphonophores, from the first formal description by Carl Linnaeus in 1785 to the present, is summarized, and species richness together with a summary of world-wide distribution of this pelagic group within the clade Hydrozoa discussed. Siphonophores exhibit three basic body plans which are briefly explained and figured, whilst other atypical body plans are also noted. Currently, 175 valid siphonophore species are recognized in the latest WoRMS world list, including 16 families and 65 genera. Much new information since the last review in 1987 is revealed from the first molecular analysis of the group, enabling identification of some new morphological characters diagnostic for physonect siphonophores. Ten types of nematocysts (stinging cells) are identified in siphonophores, more than in any other cnidarian; these are incorporated into batteries in the side branches of the tentacles in most species (here termed tentilla), and tentilla are reviewed in the last section of this paper. Their discharge mechanisms are explained and also how the tentilla of several physonect siphonophores are modified into lures. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a previously unknown red fluorescent lure in the tentilla of the deep sea physonect Erenna, the first described example of emission of red light by an invertebrate to attract prey.
Existence in a Shambles: Examining the Curious Case of Depersonalization Disorder
Geoffrey M. Hunt
Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Throughout the history of psychiatry, the phenomenon of dissociation has been continuously debated, negotiated, and redefined. Outside the field of psychiatry, an understanding of dissociation and its impact is even more elusive. In this partial review of the literature, depersonalization disorder, a little known psychopathology intimately related to dissociation, is analyzed in detail. From defining the disorder in terms of our current understanding to exploring its prevalence and origins (both traumatic and biological), this analysis seeks to reveal this disorder to a public largely unaware of its existence. By examining depersonalization disorder in-depth, it is hoped that this analysis may aid in bringing the commonly experienced phenomena of depersonalization and derealization into public awareness and discourse. Future studies should strive to bolster the growing empirical data related to the understanding and treatment of these phenomena in their pathological form.
Land of a Couple of Dances: Global and Local Influences on Freestyle Play in Dance Dance Revolution
Fibreculture Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This paper traces successful and unsuccessful attempts to shape the meanings of the video game Dance Dance Revolution, specifically with reference to what "dancing" means in this context, as the game moves between various interested parties - game developers, players, Internet forum participants, and other media producers. Drawing on Actor-Network Theory and the network analyses of Manuel Castells, the paper reconstructs the forces shaping players' stylistic decisions through an analysis of dance game machines and software, and of a single forum thread on DDRFreak.com, a major website in the dance game community. The paper asks who decides how DDR players dance and at what times? Are the decisions about play made in the development meeting, the arcade, competitions, online or around the home console? Globally, how do some regions or groups emerge as experts or leaders in play style? Analysis indicates that within the United States, Californian players from major cities dominate discussion, supported by the global flows of people, resources, and capital through the state. The dominant players support their stated norms for play through recourse to mainstream conceptions of masculinity, rap music and associated styles of dance.
Lost in the Forest, Stuck in the Trees: Dispositional Global/Local Bias Is Resistant to Exposure to High and Low Spatial Frequencies
Gillian Dale, Karen M. Arnell
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098625
Abstract: Visual stimuli can be perceived at a broad, “global” level, or at a more focused, “local” level. While research has shown that many individuals demonstrate a preference for global information, there are large individual differences in the degree of global/local bias, such that some individuals show a large global bias, some show a large local bias, and others show no bias. The main purpose of the current study was to examine whether these dispositional differences in global/local bias could be altered through various manipulations of high/low spatial frequency. Through 5 experiments, we examined various measures of dispositional global/local bias and whether performance on these measures could be altered by manipulating previous exposure to high or low spatial frequency information (with high/low spatial frequency faces, gratings, and Navon letters). Ultimately, there was little evidence of change from pre-to-post manipulation on the dispositional measures, and dispositional global/local bias was highly reliable pre- to post-manipulation. The results provide evidence that individual differences in global/local bias or preference are relatively resistant to exposure to spatial frequency information, and suggest that the processing mechanisms underlying high/low spatial frequency use and global/local bias may be more independent than previously thought.
Coating and Characterization of Mock and Explosive Materials
Emily M. Hunt,Matt Jackson
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/468032
Abstract: This project develops a method of manufacturing plastic-bonded explosives by using use precision control of agglomeration and coating of energetic powders. The energetic material coating process entails suspending either wet or dry energetic powders in a stream of inert gas and contacting the energetic powder with atomized droplets of a lacquer composed of binder and organic solvent. By using a high-velocity air stream to pneumatically convey the energetic powders and droplets of lacquer, the energetic powders are efficiently wetted while agglomerate drying begins almost immediately. The result is an energetic powder uniformly coated with binder, that is, a PBX, with a high bulk density suitable for pressing. Experiments have been conducted using mock explosive materials to examine coating effectiveness and density. Energetic materials are now being coated and will be tested both mechanically and thermally. This allows for a comprehensive comparison of the morphology and reactivity of the newly coated materials to previously manufactured materials. 1. Introduction The study of explosives is of considerable importance because of their many technological and defense-related applications. Plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) are a mixture of particulate energetic material and a polymer binder. PBXs have been commonly used in both military and industry because of their improved safety, enhanced mechanical properties, and reduced vulnerability during storage and transportation [1]. Mechanical initiation of PBXs is strongly dependent on the heterogeneity of the energetic materials and polymeric binder at the mesoscale [2, 3]. The polymer binder in the PBXs plays an important role in enhancing the properties of the base explosive (i.e., improving mechanical properties, enhancing chemical and thermal stability, reducing environmental impact, etc.). Therefore, there is an increasing need to understand and predict the chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the PBXs as well as the interactions among the energetic particles and polymeric binder [4]. Although many studies have been conducted on composite explosives to examine the effects of such parameters as particle size [5], crystal defects [6], and binder properties [7], the contributions of grain anisotropy, defects and interfacial responses to hot-spot initiation still remain very difficult task. This study examines a method to develop PBX in which explosive powder is bound together in a matrix using small quantities (typically 5–10% by weight) of a synthetic polymer or plastic. PBXs are normally used for
Boom-to-bust. The scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) fishery in the Pisco-Paracas region, southern Peruvian coast Auge y crisis: la pesquería de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) en la región Pisco-Paracas, costa sur del Perú
Ricardo M. González Hunt
Espacio y Desarrollo , 2010,
Abstract: This paper examines scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) booms experienced in the Pisco-Paracas Region of southern Peru, triggered by the 1982-1983 and the 1997-1998 mega-El Ni o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The quiet fishing ports have been transformed by these booms, which have attracted outside stakeholders transforming the local society. Government institutions in their role as resource managers and environmental stewards have attempted to control access to a region that until recently contained the only marine protected area of Peru. This situation has led to rapid growth in the scallop industry, the overexploitation and depletion of the shellfish, creating a sustainability crisis. Furthermore, this paper examines contradictions and relationships across local, regional, national, and international scales. Este trabajo examina los ciclos de expansión (boom) de la explotación de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) observados en la región Pisco-Paracas del sur del Perú, resultantes de los fenómenos El Ni o de 1982-1983 y 1997-1998. Los apacibles puertos de pesca han sido transformados por estos booms productivos que han atraído actores externos y han generado un impacto en la sociedad local. Las instituciones gubernamentales, en su papel de administradores de recursos y protectores del medio ambiente, han tratado de controlar el acceso a una región que hasta hace poco contenía la única área marina protegida del Perú. Esta situación ha producido un rápido crecimiento de la industria de la concha de abanico, su sobreexplotación y el agotamiento de dicho recurso, y ha producido una crisis de sostenibilidad. Asimismo, este trabajo examina las contradicciones y las relaciones entre las escalas local, regional, nacional e internacional.
Challenges for Research on Intelligence
Earl Hunt,Susanne M. Jaeggi
Journal of Intelligence , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/jintelligence1010036
Abstract: After 100 years of research, the definition of the field is still inadequate. The biggest challenge we see is moving away from a de-factor definition of intelligence in terms of test scores, but at the same time making clear what the boundaries of the field are. We then present four challenges for the field, two within a biological and two within a social context. These revolve around the issues of the malleability of intelligence and its display in everyday life, outside of a formal testing context. We conclude that developments in cognitive neuroscience and increases in the feasibility of monitoring behavior outside of the context of a testing session offer considerable hope for expansion of our both the biological and social aspects of individual differences in cognition.
Asymmetries arising from the space-filling nature of vascular networks
David Hunt,Van M. Savage
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Cardiovascular networks span the body by branching across many generations of vessels. The resulting structure delivers blood over long distances to supply all cells with oxygen via the relatively short-range process of diffusion at the capillary level. The structural features of the network that accomplish this density and ubiquity of capillaries are often called space-filling. There are multiple strategies to fill a space, but some strategies do not lead to biologically adaptive structures by requiring too much construction material or space, delivering resources too slowly, or using too much power to move blood through the system. We empirically measure the structure of real networks (18 humans and 1 mouse) and compare these observations with predictions of model networks that are space-filling and constrained by a few guiding biological principles. We devise a numerical method that enables the investigation of space-filling strategies and determination of which biological principles influence network structure. Optimization for only a single principle creates unrealistic networks that represent an extreme limit of the possible structures that could be observed in nature. We first study these extreme limits for two competing principles, minimal total material and minimal path lengths. We combine these two principles and enforce various thresholds for balance in the network hierarchy, which provides a novel approach that highlights the trade-offs faced by biological networks and yields predictions that better match our empirical data.
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