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Lost in the Forest, Stuck in the Trees: Dispositional Global/Local Bias Is Resistant to Exposure to High and Low Spatial Frequencies
Gillian Dale, Karen M. Arnell
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098625
Abstract: Visual stimuli can be perceived at a broad, “global” level, or at a more focused, “local” level. While research has shown that many individuals demonstrate a preference for global information, there are large individual differences in the degree of global/local bias, such that some individuals show a large global bias, some show a large local bias, and others show no bias. The main purpose of the current study was to examine whether these dispositional differences in global/local bias could be altered through various manipulations of high/low spatial frequency. Through 5 experiments, we examined various measures of dispositional global/local bias and whether performance on these measures could be altered by manipulating previous exposure to high or low spatial frequency information (with high/low spatial frequency faces, gratings, and Navon letters). Ultimately, there was little evidence of change from pre-to-post manipulation on the dispositional measures, and dispositional global/local bias was highly reliable pre- to post-manipulation. The results provide evidence that individual differences in global/local bias or preference are relatively resistant to exposure to spatial frequency information, and suggest that the processing mechanisms underlying high/low spatial frequency use and global/local bias may be more independent than previously thought.
Land of a Couple of Dances: Global and Local Influences on Freestyle Play in Dance Dance Revolution
Fibreculture Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This paper traces successful and unsuccessful attempts to shape the meanings of the video game Dance Dance Revolution, specifically with reference to what "dancing" means in this context, as the game moves between various interested parties - game developers, players, Internet forum participants, and other media producers. Drawing on Actor-Network Theory and the network analyses of Manuel Castells, the paper reconstructs the forces shaping players' stylistic decisions through an analysis of dance game machines and software, and of a single forum thread on DDRFreak.com, a major website in the dance game community. The paper asks who decides how DDR players dance and at what times? Are the decisions about play made in the development meeting, the arcade, competitions, online or around the home console? Globally, how do some regions or groups emerge as experts or leaders in play style? Analysis indicates that within the United States, Californian players from major cities dominate discussion, supported by the global flows of people, resources, and capital through the state. The dominant players support their stated norms for play through recourse to mainstream conceptions of masculinity, rap music and associated styles of dance.
The Fundamental Movement Skills of a Year 9 Group and a Gifted and Talented Cohort  [PDF]
Gillian Griffiths, Rebecca Billard
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.34035

Physical Education is often viewed as the place where Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS) are developed. These skills underpin the development of motor competence and perceived competence, therefore impacting on participation and physical literacy. Within education, Gifted and Talented (G & T) and inclusion agendas have been high profile yet research has shown that children across the world are not reaching expected levels of skill mastery at primary level (5 - 11 years). The aim of the research was therefore to investigate the levels of mastery at secondary level (11 - 16 years) and within a G & T cohort to establish their levels of mastery, and investigate how this may relate to their participation in physical activities. Forty five children, 19 years 9 pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) and 26 G & T pupils (13.24 ± 0.2 years) were evaluated performing a combination locomotor, manipulative (object control) and balance skills (n = 5). 5 trials of each skill were recorded and graded against the performance criteria by one experimenter. Mastery or near mastery were only achieved, if, in 4 out of the 5 trials, 5 of the 6 component criteria were present. If this was not attained non-mastery was designated. Results revealed that the G & T pupils had greater overall mastery of the 5 skills, however they did not master all skills. All G & T had significantly increased jumping and throwing skills, and males significantly increased kicking skills. In both groups the majority of participation outside the school curriculum was related to games activities and was dominated by invasion games however no males participated in “aesthetic” activity outside school. These results indicate that development of FMS may not be occurring in children at KS3 and there is both an invasion games bias and a gender bias in the activities accessed out of school.

Water-shedding ability of waterfowl and the brachistochrone problem  [PDF]
Dale L. Schruben
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.41005
Abstract: The hypothesis is taken that the shape of a duck breast is as to shed water drops in minimum time. If a water drop is further assumed to be a frictionless bead, then analogy arises with the classic brachistochrone problem. Here a frictionless bead is one constrained to fall along a wire threading it so that it travels between two arbitrary points without friction. The brachistochrone problem is to specify the shape of that wire so that the bead completes its fall in minimum time. The shape of that wire is called a cycloid curve and it is the solution to the brachistochrone problem. Waterfowl might desire that water drops shed their breast region in minimum time and those drops resemble beads in the brachistochrone problem. Thus it might be expected that waterfowl breast profiles resemble the brachistochrone curve (cycloid), and strikingly they do. We find further this match is statistically significant compared to the general bird population, in support of the hypothesis.
A Case of Endometriosis in the Abdominal Wall Post Caesarean Section  [PDF]
Emerson Budhoo, Dale Maharaj
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.42023

We report the case of a 33 year old female who presented with endometriosis of the anterior abdominal wall following Caesarean Section at the surgical incision site. Abdominal Incisional Site Endometriosis can pose a diagnostic dilema owing to its relative rarity and vagueosity of symptoms, vis-a-vis, cyclical abdominal pain and occasional palpable mass associated with menstruation. A greater index of suspicion should be prompted in such patients especially if symptoms occur following pelvic surgery such as Caesarean Sections, hysterotomy, and myomectomy.

An Alternative Funding Model for Agribusiness Research in Canada  [PDF]
Adam Dale, Elliott Currie
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69093
Abstract: Canadian governments have moved towards a matching funding model for agricultural research. Agricultural organizations can take advantage of this if Canadian Controlled Private Corporations are established to fund research through matching grants, tax credits and investments. A low risk options strategy is presented which uses index options and is a diagonal put spread where an in-the-money put is bought which expires in 1 to 2 years and out-of-the-money puts are sold which expire monthly. In summary, “A small Canadian Controlled Private Corporation can, for a $100,000 up front initial investment, generate at least $100,000 annually in research funding, in perpetuity”.
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases
Gillian Murphy
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-11-233
Abstract: The naturally occurring inhibitory activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially identified in many cell and tissue culture studies, carried out over several decades. Between 1985 and 1996, however, four members of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) family were definitively identified at the gene level in mammals. In fact, orthologs of the TIMPs are widely distributed across the animal kingdom and have now been identified in species as widely separated as Trichoplax, Hydra, molluscs, worms and insects, as well as in vertebrates such as fish and birds. Plants do have metzincins, but no plant TIMP ortholog has been identified.TIMP1 was originally cloned in 1985 when it was found to have an erythroid potentiating activity [1] and to be an inhibitor of metalloproteinases [2]. TIMP2 was cloned in 1990 by Stetler-Stevenson et al. [3], TIMP3 by Pavloff and colleagues in 1992 [4], and TIMP4 in 1996 [5]. These proteins act as significant regulators of the activities of MMPs and, in some instances, of other metalloendopeptidases of the metzincin clan, namely the disintegrin metalloproteinases (ADAM) and the disintegrin metalloproteinases with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS). TIMPs inhibit with a 1:1 molar stoichiometry. Their importance in modulating the ability of a cell to control its extracellular environment, from the remodeling of the extracellular matrix to the interaction of cells via adhesion and signaling molecules such as growth factors has long been appreciated [6], but the significance of TIMPs as both proteinase inhibitors and signaling molecules in their own right is only just beginning to be documented [7].The four mammalian TIMPs are thought to be products of gene duplication because there is a single gene in insects, but orthologs of all four proteins are not found in all vertebrates. The TIMP proteins share a similar domain structure, composed of an amino-terminal domain and a carboxy-terminal sub-domain. TIMP1 and TIMP3 see
Accelerated partial breast irradiation: technically feasible but who will benefit?
Gillian Ross
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1016
Abstract: Breast conservation has become the standard of care for women with small cancers who wish to avoid mastectomy. During the past 20 years carefully conducted clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy in achieving survival levels equivalent to those with mastectomy, with major improvements in body image and psychosexual functioning [1]. The price of such progress has not been cheap, because the change in practice has been a major resource issue for many oncology services where health care planning failed to predict the demanding (and appropriate) increase in use of radiotherapy for most common cancers.The key issue, then, remains how do we maintain excellent breast conservation rates after lumpectomy, while reducing the morbidity of whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT)? Long-term breast or chest wall pain and poor cosmesis in a relatively small proportion of patients has always been considered by the majority of women to be an acceptable trade-off against preservation of the breast. More serious concerns regarding long-term efficacy emerged from the Early Breast Trialists overview [2], which confirmed excess cardiac events in left-sided breast cancers.One approach to reducing late radiotherapy morbidity with WBRT has been to seek to define those patients with small, node-negative cancers, who are most likely to have been 'cured' by lumpectomy alone! This philosophy originally gained support from randomized trial evidence indicating that there was no apparent difference in survival rates after lumpectomy with or without radiotherapy. Recent publications support the notion that WBRT after lumpectomy produces excellent local control in around 96% of patients at 5 years, with no difference in risk for distant metastases or survival. Questions have now been raised regarding the level of benefit from WBRT in women older than 70 years, and in those with tumours < 2 cm that are oestrogen receptor positive and node negative, although it
Sexual health for people with intellectual disability
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800019
Abstract: people with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. however, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. they may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. they face a high risk of sexual abuse. they are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. however, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.
Beyond Romanization: The creolization of food. A framework for the study of faunal remains from Roman sites.
Gillian Hawkes
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1999, DOI: 10.5334/pia.134
Abstract: The effects of the Roman conquest of Britain and the ensuing processes of Romanization have been studied for many years. The historical background to the development of the theory of Romanization has been widely discussed elsewhere (see Hingley 1996). Haverfield’s (1906) treatment of the topic was a major landmark in this development. He considered that the Roman conquest was a ‘good’ thing as it brought civilisation to the ‘natives’ who, recognising the superiority of Roman culture, willingly embraced `Roman-ness`. The theory of Romanization was further refined by Millett (1990) in The Romanization of Britain. The assumption that underlies Millett’s model is that cultural artefacts which to archaeologists look ‘Roman’ were perceived in the same way in the past. But need this be so? This paper will concern itself with looking at new approaches to culture change, especially relating to food, following the Roman conquest in Britain. It will aim to suggest methods of applying these new approaches to faunal remains, which will enable us to evolve a more subtle understanding of food in the Roman period.
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