Abstract:
In a quasi-one-dimensional conductor with an open Fermi surface, a Charge or a Spin Density Wave phase can be destroyed by an electric field perpendicular to the direction of high conductivity. This mechanism, due to the breakdown of electron-hole symmetry, is very similar to the orbital destruction of superconductivity by a magnetic field, due to time-reversal symmetry.

Abstract:
This lecture is a tutorial introduction to coherent effects in disordered electronic systems. Avoiding technicalities as most as possible, I present some personal points of view to describe well-known signatures of phase coherence like weak localization correction or universal conductance fluctuations. I show how these physical properties of phase coherent conductors can be simply related to the classical return probability for a diffusive particle. The diffusion equation is then solved in various appropriate geometries and in the presence of a magnetic field. The important notion of quantum crossing is developed, which is at the origin of the quantum effects. The analogy with optics is exploited and the relation between universal conductance fluctuations and speckle fluctuations in optics is explained. The last part concerns the effect of electron-electron interactions. Using the same simple description, I derive qualitatively the expressions of the Altshuler-Aronov anomaly of the density of states, and of the correction to the conductivity. The last part, slightly more technical, adresses the question of the lifetime of a quasiparticle in a disordered metal.

Abstract:
We calculate the modulation by a magnetic field of the critical current of a long disordered Josephson junction in the diffusive limit, i.e. when the dimensions of the junction are larger that the elastic mean free path, and when the length $L$ is much larger than the width $w$. Due to the averaging of the gauge invariant phase factor over diffusive trajectories, the well-known oscillations of the Fraunhofer pattern are smoothed out and replaced by an exponential decay at large field. The predicted pattern is universal, i.e., it is independent of the disorder strength. We point out an interesting relation with the physics of speckle correlations in optics of turbid media.

Abstract:
The average persistent current of diffusive electrons in the Hartree-Fock approximation is derived in a simple non-diagrammatic picture. The Fourier expansion directly reflects the winding number decomposition of the diffusive motion around the ring. One recovers the results of Ambegaokar and Eckern, and Schmid. Moreover one finds an expression for which is valid beyond the diffusive regime.

Abstract:
This is a review of the properties of spectral fluctations in disordered metals, their relation with Random Matrix Theory and semiclassical picture. We also review the physics of persistent currents in mesoscopic isolated rings, the parametric correlations and curvature distributions.

Abstract:
The form factor for spectral correlations in a diffusive metal is calculated in the presence of several Aharonov-Bohm fluxes. When the fluxes $\phi$ are equal, the correlations are universal functions of $n g^2 \phi$ where $g$ is the dimensionless conductance and $n$ is the number of applied fluxes. This explains recent flux dependence of the correlations found numerically at the metal-insulator transition.

Abstract:
In this brief report, we show the equivalence between the tight-binding descriptions of the monolayer and bilayer honeycomb lattices. With appropriate value of the third nearest neighbors coupling, the Hamiltonian for a monolayer is equivalent to the low energy effective Hamiltonian for bilayer in the presence of trigonal warping. A simple physical argument is provided to explain this correspondance.

Abstract:
We propose a simple description of the spectrum of edge states in the quantum Hall regime, in terms of semiclassical quantization of skipping orbits along hard wall boundaries, ${\cal A}=2 \pi (n+\gamma) \ell_B^2$, where ${\cal A}$ is the area enclosed between a skipping orbit and the wall and $\ell_B$ is the magnetic length. Remarkably, this description provides an excellent quantitative agreement with the exact spectrum. We discuss the value of $\gamma$ when the skipping orbits touch one or two edges, and its variation when the orbits graze the edges and the semiclassical quantization has to be corrected by diffraction effects. The value of $\gamma$ evolves continuously from $1/2$ to $3/4$. We calculate the energy dependence of the drift velocity along the different Landau levels. We compare the structure of the semiclassical cyclotron orbits, their position with respect to the edge, to the wave function of the corresponding eigenstates.

Abstract:
The stability of a Charge Density Wave (CDW) in a one-dimensional ring pierced by a Aharonov-Bohm flux is studied in a mean-field picture. It is found that the stability depends on the parity of the number $N$ of electrons. When the size of the ring becomes as small as the coherence length $\xi$, the CDW gap increases for even $N$ and decreases for odd $N$. Then when $N$ is even, the CDW gap decreases with flux but it increases when $N$ is odd. The variation of the BCS ratio with size and flux is also calculated. We derive the harmonics expansion of the persistent current in a presence of a finite gap.

Abstract:
We show how the orbital magnetization of an interacting disordered diffusive electron gas can be simply related to the magnetization of the non-interacting system having the same geometry. This result is applied to the persistent current of a mesoscopic ring and to the relation between Landau diamagnetism and the interaction correction to the magnetization of diffusive systems. The field dependence of this interaction contribution can be deduced directly from the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations of the free electron gas. Known results for the free orbital magnetism of finite systems can be used to derive the interaction contribution in the diffusive regime in various geometries.