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Circonvolutions et avenir de la sécurité sous-traitée : vers la maturation d’une norme d’encadrement des PMSCs ?
Gilles Biaumet
Pyramides : Revue du Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique , 2012,
Abstract: Cette étude transversale analyse les différentes mutations qu’ont opérées les acteurs privés de la sécurité – mercenaires et compagnies militaires et de sécurité privées – au cours de l’histoire. Elle met en lumière, par le biais d’une approche narrative et constructiviste, la capacité qu’ils ont présentée à s’adapter à un environnement international changeant. Les deux premiers cycles renvoient au mercenariat classique, une activité qui sera fa onnée par une norme anti-mercenaire et dont les deux expressions de fin de cycle seront respectivement la consécration de la Nation en armes et l’expression de la norme en termes d’instruments juridiques. Nous sommes aujourd’hui dans un troisième cycle, celui des compagnies militaires et de sécurité privées. Celui-ci est sur le point de conna tre un bouleversement qui trouve à son origine la formulation, au sein de la société civile, d’une norme pr nant l’encadrement du secteur privé de la sécurité. Cette norme a atteint un degré de maturité tel que la problématique des acteurs privés de la sécurité est désormais inscrite à l’agenda des états, et fera bient t l’objet de discussions au sein d’un nouveau Groupe de travail onusien visant à la formulation d’un projet de convention internationale. C’est précisément ce processus de maturation de la norme et le nouveau projet de Convention qui sont discutés ici.
Equilibrium Allele Distribution in Trading Populations  [PDF]
Gilles Saint-Paul
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.73012
Abstract: This paper extends the results of Saint-Paul (2007) regarding the long-run survival rates of alleles in trading populations, to a more general context where the number of loci is arbitrarily large under general assumptions about sexual reproduction. The central result is that fitness-reducing alleles can survive in a trading population, provided their frequency is not too large. However, the greater the number of loci that matter for fitness, the more stringent the conditions under which these alleles can survive.
éditorial : Monitoring pour le stockage du CO2 et la production des hydrocarbures Editorial: Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration and Hydrocarbon Production
Kimmerlin Gilles,Munier Gilles
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.2516/ogst/2011178
Invariant Relative Orbits Taking into Account Third-Body Perturbation  [PDF]
Walid Ali Rahoma, Gilles Metris
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.32018
Abstract: For a satellite in an orbit of more than 1600 km in altitude, the effects of Sun and Moon on the orbit can’t be negligible. Working with mean orbital elements, the secular drift of the longitude of the ascending node and the sum of the argu-ment of perigee and mean anomaly are set equal between two neighboring orbits to negate the separation over time due to the potential of the Earth and the third body effect. The expressions for the second order conditions that guaran-tee that the drift rates of two neighboring orbits are equal on the average are derived. To this end, the Hamiltonian was developed. The expressions for the non-vanishing time rate of change of canonical elements are obtained.
Modeling longitudinal data in acute illness
Gilles Clermont
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc5968
Abstract: Critical care physicians titrate care of individual patients based on presumed diagnosis derived from available data and anticipated progression of disease. The problem of sepsis in the intensive care unit has proven particularly vexing because both components of the decision-making process are insufficiently characterized. The problem is compounded by the fact that interventions in severely septic patients are time critical, the data are complex, and there is at least theoretical potential for harming patients with immuno-modulation of the host response to an infectious challenge.In the previous issue of Critical Care, Kyr and coworkers [1] introduce a sophisticated statistical technique for modeling longitudinal data. Given baseline values of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and patient characteristics, the models presented have the ability to predict future levels of CRP, across diagnostic categories and patient characteristics. The authors recognize their work to be exploratory, and limited by the small size of the cohort, lack of a validation group, and inability to include predictors in the models that could significantly enhance the applicability of the predictions to more refined subgroups or individual patients. However, the work is relevant to critical illness.The critical care community's best effort to address sepsis is crystallized in the recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis campaign [2]. Despite conflicting reports on the efficacy of immunomodulation in sepsis, there is a prevailing view that future, decisive improvement in outcomes will result from targeted, biomarker-guided immunomodulation [3,4]. However, how the targeting should be achieved and how biomarker profiles should be interpreted remain open fields of inquiry. In this regard, the development of data-driven models that 'explain' the dynamics of markers of septic physiology may prove useful.There are, however, two caveats. First, in view of observed variability between patients, how confide
Artificial neural networks as prediction tools in the critically ill
Gilles Clermont
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc3507
Abstract: The science of outcome prediction is particularly useful in the setting of the emergency room – the entry point of many to acute care. In this issue of Critical Care Jaimes and coworkers [1] evaluate the usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in predicting hospital mortality in patients presenting to the emergency room with suspected sepsis. The construction of a prediction tool is a difficult undertaking; it requires careful methodological consideration and validation before the predictions can be deemed valid and reliable in na?ve patients [2,3]. These tools identify the presence of associations between the outcome of interest and empiric risk factors that contribute to this outcome. A well designed tool will typically possess three qualities: discrimination (the ability to identify accurately those patients who will reach the outcome from those who will not), goodness of fit (the ability to match accurately predicted and actual outcomes, such as mortality rate, in subgroups of patients), and the ability to achieve these predictions in cohorts of patients similar to those in which the tool was developed [4,5].Most predictive tool use logistic regression – a well vetted statistical technique that is applicable to situations in which the outcome is binary (e.g. survival/death), measured at a predetermined time in the future [6]. The technique can precisely quantify the relative contribution of each risk factor to outcome, typically crystallized as the odds ratio (i.e. the relative odds that a patient with the risk factor has of reaching the outcome as compared with a patient without the risk factor). ANNs represent an alternative technique for achieving predictions. The key difference between the two techniques is that the contribution of each risk factor is not as rigidly dictated with ANNs as it is in a logistic regression model. ANNs can improve predictions by extracting information drawn from unforeseen interactions between predictors. Arguably, if a mo
Impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles in adolescents at different age groups in relation to adulthood
Gilles Plourde
BMC Family Practice , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-3-18
Abstract: For the first study, data analyses were from a case-control study of adolescents classified according to their BMI; a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex as overweight, and those with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile as obese. Subjects with a BMI < 85th percentile were classified as controls. WC:AC ratio of waist circumference to arm circumference was used as an indicator of a central pattern of adiposity. Two other indices of central adiposity were calculated from skinfolds: Central-peripheral (CPR) as subscapular skinfold + suprailliac skinfold)/ (triceps skinfold + thigh skinfold) and ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR). The sum of the four skinfolds (SUM) was calculated from triceps, subscapular, suprailliac and thigh skinfolds. SUM provides a single measure of subcutaneous adiposity. Representative adult subjects were used for comparison. Glucose and lipid profiles were also determined in these subjects. Abnormal glucose and lipid profiles were determined as being those with fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l and lipid values ≥ 85th percentile adjusted for age and sex, respectively. Prevalence and odds ratio analysis were used to determine the impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles at each Tanner stages for both sexes. Correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine the association between glucose and lipid profiles and anthropometric measurements for both sexes. The second study evaluated in a retrospective-prospective longitudinal way if: 1) obesity in adolescence is associated with obesity in adulthood and 2) the nature of obesity-associated risk factors. Incidence and odds ratio analysis were used to determine the impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles at 7 different age groups from 9 to 38 years old in both sexes between 1974 to 2000.Overall, glucose and lipid profiles were significantly (P < 0.01) associated with all anthropometric measurements either in male and female adolescents. WC:AC, CPR, STR and SUM are stronger predictors o
Implica??o, sobreimplica??o e implica??o profissional
Monceau, Gilles;
Fractal : Revista de Psicologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-02922008000100007
Abstract: this article debates one of the basic concepts of institutional analysis: implication. for that purpose, brings two other concepts that stem from it: over implication and professional implication. both rather important for the implications analyses process. pointing out that implication analyses is a collective work, the text board the devices that those analyses can construct. bringing examples of different spaces, in the school, in the university, in the hospital, it is analysed the tendency to give a universitarian form to the professions, when professionals are called to work their practical difficulties, doing it through the discourse, as used in the universities, as if the discursive analyses of the practice allowed the evolution of their practice.
Transformar as práticas para conhecê-las: pesquisa-a??o e profissionaliza??o docente
Monceau, Gilles;
Educa??o e Pesquisa , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-97022005000300010
Abstract: within the scientific institution, action research designates a type of conduct with its own peculiarities. however, as the different histories of action research demonstrate, the term itself has seen periods of greater or lesser popularity, and the procedures it has qualified have also experienced remarkable evolutions. nowadays, action research and intervention research are largely presented as similar and even confused. in the universe of teaching, action research, whilst vividly present in the education, renovation and even management devices, is seldom regarded as a research procedure. this article examines the way in which action research interferes with this object of research constituted by the teaching practices. we question, in particular, the fact that the model of action research (which mobilizes a collective dimension) suffers the competition, in the process of professionalization of teaching, of the reflective practitioner model (more based on an individual dimension). if there is a tradition of action research and if the characteristics of this procedure continue to influence the research on education, this happens today in a field of research that is about to be redefined, including the socio-clinical studies and the work of those researchers that call themselves practitioners-researchers. the transformations that a research can generate in a given space do not exhaust its objectives; on the contrary, they allow the production of knowledges with their own peculiarities, especially that of exploring social dynamics more than supposedly static situations.
Nós geramos átomos em lugar da realidade das coisas: Pascal e o a-teísmo do infinito
Olivo, Gilles;
Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-512X2006000200012
Abstract: este trabalho busca explicar o que se deve entender por "despropor??o do homem" no fragmento la 199. ele tenta estabelecer a tese segundo a qual a despropor??o do homem descreve um fechamento do homem em sua posi??o de centro de referência para o e no conhecimento: este caráter central designa a primazia epistemológica que, de fato, traduz a posi??o do homem cartesiano na natureza, isto é, face a ela. é por isso que o la 199 é uma crítica radical ao conceito cartesiano de infinito como nome de deus.
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