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SMEDDS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR LIPOPHILIC DRUGS
Bhawandeep Gill et al
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: The oral delivery of lipophilic drugs presents a major challenge because of the low aqueous solubility and less bioavailability. Self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) have gained exposure for their ability to increase solubility and bioavailability. SMEDDS, which are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents/surfactants, can be used for the design of formulations in order to improve the oral absorption of highly lipophilic drug compounds. SMEDDS can be orally administered in soft or hard gelatin capsules and form fine relatively stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions upon aqueous dilution owing to the gentle agitation of the gastrointestinal fluids. The efficiency of oral absorption of the drug compound from the SMEDDS depends on many formulation-related parameters, such as surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, polarity of the emulsion, droplet size and charge, all of which in essence determine the self-emulsification ability. Thus, only very specific pharmaceutical excipient combinations will lead to efficient self-microemulsifying systems. The fact that almost 40% of the new drug compounds are hydrophobic in nature implies that studies with SMEDDS will continue, and more drug compounds formulated as SMEDDS will reach the pharmaceutical market in the future. Further this review highlights various components of SMEDDS. This review gives an overview of SMEDDS as a promising approach to effectively tackle the problems of poorly soluble molecules.
Formulation and evaluation of glimepiride solid dispersion tablets
Gill Bhawandeep,Kaur Tejvir,Kumar Sandeep,Gupta G
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Glimepiride (GMP) is poorly water soluble drug, so solubility is the main constraint for oral its bioavailability. An attempt has been made to increase the solubility of this model drug by formulating solid dispersion (SD) using Poloxamer 188 (PXM 188) as polymer and then formulating SDs tablets of the best formulation of SDs. Tablet formulations were prepared by direct compression technique using superdisintegrant croscarmellose sodium in different concentrations. SDs were evaluated for XRD, SEM, in vitro dissolution profiles, and dissolution efficiency, and developed tablet formulations were evaluated for various pharmaceutical characteristics viz. hardness, % friability, weight variation, drug content, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles, and dissolution efficiency. Among different formulations of SDs, SD containing drug is to polymer ratio 1 : 4 gives best dissolution profile and dissolution efficiency and among tablet formulations, formulations containing 5% croscarmellose sodium gives best disintegration and dissolution profiles compared with other formulations. Results showed that poloxamer is a promising polymer for enhancing the solubility of GMP.
Exploring the Factors that Affect the Choice of Destination for Medical Tourism  [PDF]
Neha Singh, Harsimran Gill
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.43037
Abstract: Medical Tourism has become one of the latest trends in the tourism industry which has been and has the potential to continue growing exponentially every year. More travelers than ever before are now travelling abroad to get high quality medical treatments for less cost. The purpose of my study is to explore the interest in US travelers in medical tourism. Results from the survey indicated that “competent doctors”, “high quality medical treatment facility”, and “prompt medical treatment when needed” where the top three factors before deciding whether or not to take a trip abroad. The results will be useful to businesses that are either directly or indirectly involved with this industry, such as insurance companies, credit card companies, travel agencies, hotels, food and beverage companies, medical facilities and services, and spas.
Higher Variations of the Monty Hall Problem (3.0, 4.0) and Empirical Definition of the Phenomenon of Mathematics, in Boole’s Footsteps, as Something the Brain Does  [PDF]
Leo Depuydt, Richard D. Gill
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.24034
Abstract: In Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm), Vol. 1, No. 4 (July 2011), pp. 136-154, the mathematical structure of the much discussed problem of probability known as the Monty Hall problem was mapped in detail. It is styled here as Monty Hall 1.0. The proposed analysis was then generalized to related cases involving any number of doors (d), cars (c), and opened doors (o) (Monty Hall 2.0) and 1 specific case involving more than 1 picked door (p) (Monty Hall 3.0). In cognitive terms, this analysis was interpreted in function of the presumed digital nature of rational thought and language. In the present paper, Monty Hall 1.0 and 2.0 are briefly reviewed (§§2-3). Additional generalizations of the problem are then presented in §§4-7. They concern expansions of the problem to the following items: (1) to any number of picked doors, with p denoting the number of doors initially picked and q the number of doors picked when switching doors after doors have been opened to reveal goats (Monty Hall 3.0; see §4); (3) to the precise conditions under which one’s chances increase or decrease in instances of Monty Hall 3.0 (Monty Hall 3.2; see §6); and (4) to any number of switches of doors (s) (Monty Hall 4.0; see §7). The afore-mentioned article in APM, Vol. 1, No. 4 may serve as a useful introduction to the analysis of the higher variations of the Monty Hall problem offered in the present article. The body of the article is by Leo Depuydt. An appendix by Richard D. Gill (see §8) provides additional context by building a bridge to modern probability theory in its conventional notation and by pointing to the benefits of certain interesting and relevant tools of computation now available on the Internet. The cognitive component of the earlier investigation is extended in §9 by reflections on the foundations of mathematics. It will be proposed, in the footsteps of George Boole, that the phenomenon of mathematics needs to be defined in empirical terms as something that happens to the brain or something that the brain does. It is generally assumed that mathematics is a property of nature or reality or whatever one may call it. There is not the slightest intention in this paper to falsify this assumption because it cannot be falsified, just as it cannot be empirically or positively proven. But there is no way that this assumption can be a factual observation. It can be no more than an altogether reasonable, yet fully secondary, inference derived mainly from the fact that mathematics appears to work, even if some may
Imperfection of Domain Knowledge and Its Formalization in Context of Design of Robust Software Systems  [PDF]
Meenakshi Sridhar, Naseeb Singh Gill
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2015.89047
Abstract: In this paper, it is emphasized that taking into consideration of imperfection of knowledge, of the team of the designers/developers, about the problem domains and environments is essential in order to develop robust software metrics and systems. In this respect, first various possible types of imperfections in knowledge are discussed and then various available formal/mathematical models for representing and handling these imperfections are discussed. The discussion of knowledge classification & representation is from computational perspective and that also within the context of software development enterprise, and not necessarily from organizational management, from library & information science, or from psychological perspectives.
Melbourne-RACI December Synthesis Symposium
Melvyn Gill
Molecules , 2004, DOI: 10.3390/90600383
Abstract: No abstract available
Disorder and Everyday Life in Barrancabermeja
Gill,Lesley;
Colombia Internacional , 2011,
Abstract: this article examines how years of political violence and neoliberal restructuring have disorganized social life in barrancabermeja. how, it asks, can working people grasp the future without the stability to understand the present and the ways that it both emerges and is different from the past? it explores how an extreme form of neoliberalism fragmented various forms of social solidarity, infused social life with fear, and generated violent, clientelistic networks that flourished in the absence of rights. it argues that unrestrained power and violence deprived people of the coherence needed to take care of themselves and to grasp the connections between the past, present, and future that are necessary "to make history."
Prescription painkillers and controlled substances: an appraisal of drug information provided by six US pharmacies
Gill PS
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S42508
Abstract: escription painkillers and controlled substances: an appraisal of drug information provided by six US pharmacies Original Research (493) Total Article Views Authors: Gill PS Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 29 - 36 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DHPS.S42508 Received: 08 January 2013 Accepted: 25 January 2013 Published: 27 February 2013 Preetinder S Gill College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USA Background: Health literacy impacts health outcomes. Health literacy is a measure of a person's competence to find, access, contextualize, and understand the information needed to make health decisions. Low levels of health literacy have been associated with poor health status. Health literacy can be enhanced by improving the readability of health literature. Misuse and abuse of prescription medicines and controlled substances is rising. It could be argued that improving the readability of the drug-information documents associated with these medicines could serve to alleviate this situation in a small, albeit incremental, manner. This paper provides a readability assessment of 71 such documents. Methods: The readability of drug-information documents associated with 12 commonly misused and abused painkiller medicines and controlled substances published by the top six US pharmacies was assessed. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) indices were used to assess the readability of these drug-information documents. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the readability of the documents. Results: The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level index score was found to be 11.16. The average Flesch Reading Ease index score was found to be 45.94. The average SMOG index score was found to be 13.60. Pharmacies C and E had the best average readability scores, whereas pharmacies A and B had the worst average readability scores. Conclusion: Access, contents, and formatting of the documents were qualitatively analyzed to make recommendations to improve readability. Pharmacies C and E were used as benchmarks to identify the seven best practices. Good drug-information documents should have: (1) clear purpose, (2) limited scope, (3) summary/brief review, (4) well-placed graphics, (5) informative illustrations, (6) clean layout and lucid formatting relevant to the media, and (7) focus on the intended users.
Technological innovation and its effect on public health in the United States
Gill PS
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S34810
Abstract: hnological innovation and its effect on public health in the United States Original Research (1015) Total Article Views Authors: Gill PS Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 31 - 40 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S34810 Received: 08 June 2012 Accepted: 18 December 2012 Published: 23 January 2013 Preetinder Singh Gill College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USA Background: Good public health ensures an efficient work force. Organizations can ensure a prominent position on the global stage by staying on the leading edge of technological development. Public health and technological innovation are vital elements of prosperous economies. It is important to understand how these elements affect each other. This research study explored and described the relationship between these two critical elements/constructs. Methods: Indicators representing technological innovation and public health were identified. Indicator data from 2000 to 2009 were collected from various US federal government sources, for the four US Census regions. The four US Census regions were then compared in terms of these indicators. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations of the indicators that are strongly related to each other. Additionally, the cause–effect relationship between public health and technological innovation was described using the structural equation modeling technique. Results: The four US Census regions ranked differently in terms of both type of indicators in a statistically significant manner. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, with a magnitude > 0.65 at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. Structural equation modeling analysis provided β < 0.69 and Student’s t statistic > 12.98, for all census regions. The threshold Student’s t statistic was 1.98. Hence, it was found that the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. Discussion: The results of the study showed that better technological innovation indicator scores were associated with better public health indicator scores. Furthermore, the study provided preliminary evidence that technological innovation shares causal relation with public health.
Patient engagement: an investigation at a primary care clinic
Gill PS
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S42226
Abstract: tient engagement: an investigation at a primary care clinic Original Research (498) Total Article Views Authors: Gill PS Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 85 - 98 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S42226 Received: 01 January 2013 Accepted: 21 January 2013 Published: 04 March 2013 Preetinder Singh Gill College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USA Background: Engaged employees are an asset to any organization. They are instrumental in ensuring good commercial outcomes through continuous innovation and incremental improvement. A health care facility is similar to a regular work setting in many ways. A health care provider and a patient have roles akin to a team leader and a team member/stakeholder, respectively. Hence it can be argued that the concept of employee engagement can be applied to patients in health care settings in order to improve health outcomes. Methods: Patient engagement data were collected using a survey instrument from a primary care clinic in the northern Indian state of Punjab. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations which were strongly related to each other. In addition, the cause-effect relationship between patient engagement and patient-perceived health outcomes was described using structural equation modeling. Results: Canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, ie, a magnitude > 0.80 at the 95% confidence interval, for five dimensions of patient engagement. Structural equation modeling analysis yielded a β ≥ 0.10 and a Student's t statistic ≥ 2.96 for these five dimensions. The threshold Student's t statistic was 1.99. Hence it was found the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval for all census regions. Conclusion: A scaled reliable survey instrument was developed to measured patient engagement. Better patient engagement is associated with better patient-perceived health outcomes. This study provides preliminary evidence that patient engagement has a causal relationship with patient-perceived health outcomes.
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