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Reduction of solids and organic load concentrations in tequila vinasses using a polyacrylamide (PAM) polymer flocculant
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2007,
Abstract: this study consisted of three experiments designed to evaluate the practicality of using a cationic polyacrylamide (pam) polymer flocculant to reduce commonly used aquatic pollution indicators in tequila vinasses. a first experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used to observe the effects on vinasses of five different concentrations of pam (20, 60, 100, 140 and 180 g/l) at two different temperatures, 25 and 90 °c. in a second experiment vinasses from different tequila factories were treated with 200 mg/l of pam and the flocculated solids separated in a pilot-scale cylindrical rotating screen separator constructed of non-oxidized steel. in a third experiment the flocculation study was carried out in a small tequila factory using 4,500 liters of tequila vinasses treated with 200 mg/l of pam discharged from three different pot stills. recovered flocculated solids (g/l), settleable solids (ss, ml/l), total solids (ts, mg/l), total suspended solids (tss, mg/l), total dissolved solids (tds, mg/l) and chemical oxygen demand (cod, mg/l) concentrations were the evaluated answer parameters. the major effect in the pam addition to vinasses samples in the two different temperature conditions, was reflected in the removal efficiency of ss and tss. in ss concentration of treated vinasses there was a significant effect (p<0.05) due to temperature and pam concentrations so as well as an interaction between both factors. ts removal efficiency was affected by the temperature and pam concentration and there was no interaction among the temperature and coagulant concentration (p<0.05). cod concentration in vinasses samples, was affected only by the coagulant concentration, there was no interaction among temperature and coagulant concentration (p<0.05). vinasse cooling and ph adjustment was not considered necessary for optimal polymer-amended vinasses solids separation. for vinasses with a ss of 400 mg/l or less an addition of 200 mg/l of pam it is expected to have optimal rem
Reduction of solids and organic load concentrations in tequila vinasses using a polyacrylamide (pam) polymer flocculant
Gilberto í?iguez-Covarrubias,Francisco Peraza-Luna
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2007,
Abstract: El presente estudio se basó en tres tipos de experimentos para evaluar la aplicación de un floculante catiónico de un polímero de poliacrilamida (PAM), para reducir indicadores de contaminación acuática por vinazas de tequila. Se realizó un primer experimento con un arreglo factorial de 2 x 2 para observar los efectos sobre vinazas tequileras de cinco diferentes concentraciones de PAM (20, 60, 100, 140 y 180 g/L) a dos temperaturas diferentes 25 y 90 oC. En un segundo experimento, vinazas tequileras de diferentes compa ías fueron tratadas con 200 mg/L de PAM. El flóculo fue recuperado en un separador piloto cilíndrico rotatorio construido de acero inoxidable. En un tercer experimento, el estudio de la floculación fue realizado en una peque a fábrica de tequila utilizando 4,500 litros de vinazas provenientes de tres diferentes alambiques de destilación con 200 mg/L de floculante. Los parámetros de respuesta que se utilizaron para la evaluación del floculante fueron: sólidos floculados recuperados (g/L), sólidos sedimentables (SS, ml/L), sólidos totales (ST, mg/L), sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, mg/L), sólidos disueltos totales (SDT, mg/L) y demanda química oxígeno (DQO, mg/L). El mayor efecto de la adición de PAM sobre las muestras de vinazas, en las dos diferentes condiciones de temperatura, fue reflejado por la eficiencia de remoción de SS y SST. En la concentración de SS en las vinazas tratadas, hubo un efecto significativo (p<0.05) debido a la temperatura y a las concentraciones de PAM, así como a la interrelación de ambos factores. La eficiencia de remoción de ST fue afectada por la temperatura y la concentración de PAM aunque hubo interacción de la temperatura y la concentración del coagulante (p<0.05). La concentración de DQO de las muestras de vinazas, fue afectada solamente por la concentración del coagulante y no por la interrelación de la temperatura y la concentración del coagulante (p<0.05). No se consideró necesario el enfriamiento de las vinazas ni el ajuste de pH para una separación óptima de los sólidos de las vinazas por acción del polímero. Para las vinazas con 400 mg/l de SS ó menos, se espera que la adición de 200 mg/L de PAM genere valores óptimos de remoción de SS y valores relativamente aceptables de ST, SST y DQO. Se estima que los costos asociados con las concentraciones de PAM utilizadas en este estudio, corresponden a 0.076 de dólar por litro de vinazas cuando el PAM cuesta 3.8 dólares por kilogramo.
Characteristics of Toxic Waste from Nine Casting Industries According to Mexican Standards: Prospective Study of West Mexico  [PDF]
Walter Ramírez-Meda, José de Jesús Bernal-Casillas, Luis Alberto López-Tejeda, Gilberto í?iguez-Covarrubias
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.53004
Abstract: This research analyzed nine casting industries located in western Mexico and their waste streams, including slags, sand, dust and sludge. All of these are considered dangerous by Mexican Legislation due to their concentrations of heavy metals. Analytical results show that lead is the main problem in these wastes. Field sampling showed that these industries do not have any protocol for waste handling and storage.
Composting of Food and Yard Wastes under the Static Aerated Pile Method  [PDF]
Gilberto í?iguez-Covarrubias, Rodrigo Gómez-Rizo, Walter Ramírez-Meda, José de Jesús Bernal-Casillas
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2018.84019
Abstract: This work presents the results that were obtained in a commercial composting plant where food (149,690 kg) and yard wastes (144,520 kg) were used as raw materials for its stabilization under the aerated static pile (ASP) method as an alternative to the mechanically mixed windrow method to solve problems of flies and odor nuisance complaints. In a pile of approximately 498 m3, the change in temperature was the main parameter that was evaluated during 49 days of positive forced aeration. Subsequently, a part of the material of the ASP (62 m3) was subjected to a curing period for 44 days recording changes in temperature and humidity. The results of carbon dioxide and volatile ammonia emissions analyses (NH3) and of a bioassay to screen for the presence of phytotoxic conditions showed a very mature compost with an emergence > 90% and a seedling vigor > 95%.
Separación de residuos domiciliarios para la preparación de compost y su análisis en la producción de pepinos
I?iguez-Covarrubias, Gilberto;I?iguez-Franco, F. María;Martínez-Gutiérrez, G. Alberto;Ryckeboer, J.;
Agrociencia , 2011,
Abstract: the management of domestic wastes is not merely an issue of home technology, but of strategies, education and social awareness; it requires the participation of authorities, businessmen and civil society. the objective of this study was under these premises, with emphasis on the participation of society to manage kitchen wastes and garden residues through composting in a residential area of zapopan, jalisco, in august, 2007. a program of collection, quantification, classification and evaluation of the neighbors' response to the call to separate the kitchen waste was implemented. for composting the residues were deposited in two wooden bins in alternating layers with garden waste up to place 3000 kg of kitchen waste and 1595 kg of garden waste per bin. the composting period was 105 d, in which an average of 4 kg garbage d-1 house 1 was generated. each household generated an average of 1.92 kg-1 of kitchen waste. according to the 21 fractions of waste classification, it was found that 47.4 % were kitchen waste, 10.7 % paper, 7.4 % garden waste and 0.4 % aluminum cans and paper. in addition, 61 % of household waste can be handled by composting, 24.3 % by recycling, 12.4 % by composting when consumption patterns of the population change by using new technologies to manufacture compostable materials and only 2.3 % can be handled in sanitary landfills. at the end of composting the kitchen and garden wastes became a product with texture and smell similar to a gardening land; the loss of volume and dry matter was 44 and 44.7 %. the compost was characterized by: ph 8.26, conductivity 5.55 ds m-1, total n 1.5 %, na 370.54 mg kg-1, cu 35.38 mg kg-1, be 0.56 mg kg-1, al 7927 mg kg-1, ba 44 mg kg-1, cd 0.49 mg kg-1, ca 5.44 %, cr 6.33 mg kg-1, pb 8.67 mg kg-1, co 1.42 mg kg-1, fe 4379.74 mg kg-1, mg 0.32 %, mn 767.07 mg kg-1, mo 13.75 mg kg-1, ni 3.16 mg kg-1, p 0.24 %, k 1.2 %, ag<0.29 mg kg-1, zn 165.28 mg kg-1, sb 18.87 mg kg-1, ti 118.99 mg kg-1 and v 10.32 mg kg-1. in a gre
Evaluación de un reactor de manto de lodo con flujo ascendente (UASB) con cambios de velocidad de alimentación
I?iguez-Covarrubias, G;Camacho-López, A;
Ingeniería, investigación y tecnología , 2011,
Abstract: in this study wastewaters of a fermented beverages industry were treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (uasb) with a volume of2,500 m3. the work investigated primarily the effect of the upflow velocity from 1 to 0.5 m/h in the biomass washout in the reactor outlet, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (cod) removal efficiencies and the biogas production. the biomass washout in the reactor outlet ranging between 1342 and 436 mg/l, the removal efficiencies of soluble cod varied from 78.6 to 95.4% and the conversion rate of removed cod to biogas was between 0.439 and 0.491 m3 of biogas/kg of soluble cod. during the study a stable anaerobic system was maintained as indicated by a low volatile fatty acids (vfa) concentration and a stable ph. the reactor performance at an upflow velocity of 0.5 m/h resulted in the smaller loss of biomass, a soluble cod removal efficiency of 94% and a biogas production of 0.467 m3/kg of soluble dqo removal.
Metodología para la determinación de la evapotranspiración integrada y la capacidad de canales en una zona de riego
í?iguez-Covarrubias,Mauro; Ojeda-Bustamante,Waldo; Rojano-Aguilar,Abraham;
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo , 2011,
Abstract: capacity of irrigation networks needs to satisfy peak crop water demands. the methods to size canal capacity require the estimation of an agronomic variable: crop evapotranspiration. there is not an integrated procedure to estimate crop evapotranspiration for large irrigation zones with a diversified crop pattern, different planting dates, and several crop seasons. not having this procedure generates uncertainty in methods for canal capacity estimations. this paper presents a methodological proposal to estimate the et variable for large irrigation zones. the procedure starts with calculating the et for each planting date per crop and season. next, it integrates a general et curve for the water year that finds the evapotranspiration for the irrigation zone (etzr). the methodology was applied to size the main canal that supplies the "santa rosa" water irrigation association in the 075 irrigation district located in the state of sinaloa, mexico. a value of 4.1 mm d-1 was estimated for etzr. the results indicate the proposed method’s accuracy to estimate the et variable to size irrigation canals.
Impacto del cambio climático en el desarrollo y requerimientos hídricos de los cultivos
Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo;Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto;í?iguez-Covarrubias, Mauro;Montero-Martínez, Martín J.;
Agrociencia , 2011,
Abstract: due to the impact of climate change, the modification of water cycle processes, mainly evapotranspiration and precipitation, will have a radical effect on irrigation water demands and management of irrigation systems. climate change projections indicate an increase in air temperature, with spatial and temporal variability. in this study, we analyzed the expected impact of climate change on water demands and crop development, by using climate change projections for the moderate-medium emissions scenario (a1b), for the conditions of irrigation district 075, río fuerte, sinaloa, méxico. it was estimated that by the end of the century, the annual increase of reference evapotranspiration will be 10 % compared to current values. water demand for crops will be reduced by 13 % for the autumn-winter season and 6 % for the spring-summer season, and it will increase by 7 % for the perennial season by the end of the century. this can be attributed to the fact that although reference evapotranspiration will increase, the greatest impact from a temperature increase will be in shortening the growing season of annual crops. therefore, it is necessary to implement adaptation actions: in the first place, using longer season cultivars than those cultivated today, with resistance to thermal stress; and in the second place, compacting the planting season toward the colder months.
Estudio para la rehabilitación de una planta de tratamiento de vinazas tequileras mediante un floculante polimérico de poliacrilamida (PAM)
í?IGUEZ, Gilberto;HERNáNDEZ, Rosaura;
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2010,
Abstract: this paper reports the results of a coagulation/flocculation study for the primary treatment of tequila vinasse, with the intention of rehabilitating a treatment plant using a cationic polyacrylamide (pam) polymer flocculant. the pam concentration required to obtain the required floc formation was determined with seven different flocculant concentrations (200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 y 800 mg/l). in a second experiment, six pilot-scale batch runs were conducted in a 798-liter container using pam concentrations of between 400 and 800 mg/l of vinasse. the flocculated solids were separated in a rotating screen separator and the treated vinasse collected in a 327-liter stainless steel tank. for each batch run, the parameters ph-value, settleable solids, total solids, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and chemical oxygen demand were evaluated for both treated and non-treated vinasse. in addition, the balance between the untreated vinasse volume as related to the recovered flocculated solids and the residual liquid vinasse was determined. based on the observed parameters within the range of the pam concentrations used, it was concluded that the higher the floculant dose, the higher the removal of vinasse pollutants, recovering up to 43.7 l of flocs/100 l of treated vinasse when 700 mg of pam/l of vinasse was used. these results proved very useful for optimizing the operational condition of the vinasse treatment plant.
Estudio para la rehabilitación de una planta de tratamiento de vinazas tequileras mediante un floculante polimérico de poliacrilamida (PAM)
Gilberto í?IGUEZ,Rosaura HERNáNDEZ
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2010,
Abstract: Se realizó un tratamiento primario por coagulación/floculación a vinazas tequileras para la rehabilitación de una planta de tratamiento; para ello se utilizó una poliacrila mida catiónica (PAM) como floculante. Se realizaron pruebas iniciales de laboratorio para conocer la concentración necesaria de PAM para obtener una buena formación de flóculos, por lo que se aplicaron concentraciones de 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 y 800 mg de floculante/L de vinazas. Posteriormente se realizaron seis corridas por lote en un contenedor de 798 L para la coagulación/floculación de las vinazas. Los flóculos formados fueron recuperados en un separador cilíndrico rotatorio. La concentración de floculante fue entre 400 y 800 mg/L de vinazas. Por separado, en un tanque de acero inoxidable se recolectaron las vinazas tratadas. En cada corrida se determinó el pH, sólidos sedimentables, sólidos totales, sólidos suspendidos totales, sólidos disueltos totales y demanda química oxígeno a las vinazas con y sin tratamiento. También se realizó un balance entre los volúmenes de vinazas por tratar y de flóculos recuperados y vinazas tratadas. Con base en los parámetros estudiados y el rango de dosis utilizado, se encontró que a mayor dosis de floculante, mayor remoción de contaminantes, con una capacidad de recuperación de hasta 45.4 kg de flóculos/100 L de vinazas tratadas al utilizar 700 mg de floculante/L de vinazas. Con los resultados obtenidos se determinaron las condiciones más importantes de operación de la planta.
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