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This study was conducted to obtain baseline data
describing Allium monanthum Max. for breeding an elite cultivar. A.
monanthum has recently become popular vegetable in Korea owing to its
unique flavors and nutraceutical effects. The agronomic traits of 271
accessions of A. monanthum collected throughout Korea were evaluated in
this study. Leaf width showed the greatest variation (0.1 to 25 mm)
among traits evaluated, followed by leaf sheath length and number of cormlets.
The average leaf sheath length and diameter, which are commonly used to
evaluate quality in the market, were 1.29 cm and 0.3 cm. Some
superior accessions had a leaf sheath length of >10 cm and diameter of
>1.1 cm. The average weight of the cormlets ranged from 1 to 2 g;
however, one accession weighed more than 4 g. The genetic diversity of A. monanthum calculated based on morphology and molecular distance was
greater in Jeolla and Gyeoungsang provinces than Gyeonggi and Chungcheong
provinces. Finally, seven elite accessions of A. monanthum were selected
owing to their potential usefulness in future breeding projects.
Ben-Naim in three articles dismissed and “answered” the Levinthal’s paradox. He announces there are pitfalls caused by the “misinterpretation” of thermodynamic hypothesis. He claims no existence of Gibbs free energy formula where the variable is a protein’s conformation X . His Gibbs energy functional is G(T, P, N, P(R)), where the variable is probability distributions P (R) of the conformations. His “minimum distribution Peq” is wrong. By carefully establishing thermodynamic systems, we demonstrate how to apply quantum statistics to derive Gibbs free energy formula G(X). The formula of the folding force is given.