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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 451 matches for " Gideon Zamba "
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Validation of a Novel Physical Activity Assessment Device in Morbidly Obese Females
Soyang Kwon,Mohammad Jamal,Gideon K. D. Zamba,Phyllis Stumbo,Isaac Samuel
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/856376
Abstract: Assessment of physical activity in morbidly obese subjects is important especially in bariatric surgery. We examined the validity of Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in morbidly obese women. Activity types, gait counts, and speed detected by the IDEEA monitor were compared to those reported by an observer. The IDEEA monitor detected activity types and gait counts with relatively high accuracy, although slightly lower in extremely obese women than in normal weight controls. The IDEEA monitor accurately estimated gait speeds in both groups. Since gait speed predicts energy expenditure more accurately than gait counts, it is of greater clinical relevance. Reliability of the IDEEA monitor was excellent. The IDEEA monitor is a valid instrument for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in extremely obese women, and therefore has potential applications in bariatric surgery both in preoperative evaluation and long-term follow-up.
Image-Based Treatment Planning of the Post-Lumpectomy Breast Utilizing CT and 3TMRI
Geraldine Jacobson,Gideon Zamba,Vicki Betts,M. Muruganandham,Joni Buechler-Price
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/246265
Abstract: Accurate lumpectomy cavity definition is critical in breast treatment planning. We compared contouring lumpectomy cavity volume and cavity visualization score (CVS) with CT versus 3T MRI. 29 patients were imaged with CT and 3T MRI. Seven additional boost planning sets were obtained for 36 image sets total. Three observers contoured the lumpectomy cavity on all images, assigning a cavity visualization score (CVS ) of 1 to 5. Measures of consistency and agreement for CT volumes were 98.84% and 98.62%, for T1 MRI were 95.65% and 95.55%, and for T2 MRI were 97.63% and 97.71%. The mean CT, T1 MRI, and T2 MRI CVS scores were 3.28, 3.38, and 4.32, respectively. There was a highly significant difference between CT and T2 scores ( ) and between T1 and T2 scores ( ). Interobserver consistency and agreement regarding volumes were high for all three modalities with T2 MRI CVS the highest. MRI may contribute to target definition in selected patients. 1. Introduction Definition of the lumpectomy cavity is a critical step in treatment planning for irradiation of the intact breast, breast boost, and for partial breast irradiation. Multiple studies have shown the limitations of single modality imaging with interobserver differences in lumpectomy cavity definition [1–4]. CT-based imaging is commonly used for breast treatment planning; but the limited soft tissue contrast of CT can result in poor visualization of the lumpectomy site in patients with dense breast parenchyma, small lumpectomy cavities, or a prolonged delay between surgery and treatment planning [2, 3]. MR imaging provides superior soft tissue contrast and may provide clearer visualization of the lumpectomy cavity. Although the diagnostic role of MRI in breast cancer management is expanding, MRI is rarely used as an imaging modality in post-lumpectomy radiation therapy planning. We compared contouring of the lumpectomy cavity volume and cavity visualization score (CVS) based on CT imaging compared to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, (3T MRI). 2. Methods and Materials This is an IRB-approved retrospective review of treatment planning imaging obtained for breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery. From September 2008 to July 2009, 29 patients referred for intact breast irradiation had breast imaging performed using both CT and noncontrast 3T MRI. Of these, seven patients had repeat CT and MRI performed at the time of boost planning, providing 36 image sets. Sixteen patients did not receive chemotherapy. The average interval between surgery and image acquisition for this group was 28 days
Validation of a Novel Physical Activity Assessment Device in Morbidly Obese Females
Soyang Kwon,Mohammad Jamal,Gideon K. D. Zamba,Phyllis Stumbo,Isaac Samuel
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/856376
Abstract: Assessment of physical activity in morbidly obese subjects is important especially in bariatric surgery. We examined the validity of Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in morbidly obese women. Activity types, gait counts, and speed detected by the IDEEA monitor were compared to those reported by an observer. The IDEEA monitor detected activity types and gait counts with relatively high accuracy, although slightly lower in extremely obese women than in normal weight controls. The IDEEA monitor accurately estimated gait speeds in both groups. Since gait speed predicts energy expenditure more accurately than gait counts, it is of greater clinical relevance. Reliability of the IDEEA monitor was excellent. The IDEEA monitor is a valid instrument for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in extremely obese women, and therefore has potential applications in bariatric surgery both in preoperative evaluation and long-term follow-up. 1. Introduction The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) is a novel device for the assessment of physical activity [1, 2]. Compared to devices used commonly for the assessment of physical activity in the free living state, the IDEEA monitor has the unique capability of detecting both the type and duration of physical activity [3, 4]. Using piezo-electric sensors on the chest, thighs, and feet, the IDEEA monitor is capable of differentiating sedentary postures (e.g., sit, stand, lie, etc.) and active gaits (e.g., walk, ascend stairs, etc.) [2]. By measuring the duration of each of these types of activity, the IDEEA monitor is able to compute the energy expenditure of the subject using preprogrammed mathematical formulae. The IDEEA monitor is the first system devised that provides reliable estimates of energy expenditure in the free living state due to its unique ability to differentiate between the types of activity [1, 2]. Therefore, the IDEEA monitor has potential clinical and research applications in the evaluation and treatment of obesity—including weight reduction surgery in the morbidly obese. The IDEEA monitor has been validated in physical activity studies in the general population but similar studies focusing on the morbidly obese population are lacking [1, 2]. Our long-term goal is to introduce physical activity and energy expenditure assessments in the preoperative evaluation, treatment, and long term postoperative follow-up of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The goal of the present pilot study
Indoor Tanning, Sunbathing, and the Hazard of Skin Cancer: The Effect of the Tan Tax  [PDF]
Gideon Yaniv, Erez Siniver
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.51007
Abstract: In July2010, a10 percent federal sales tax on indoor tanning, known as the tan tax, went into effect. Applauding the imposition of the new tax, the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) foresees that by discouraging indoor tanning, the tan tax will significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer and consequently the future costs of its treatment, currently amounting to $1.8 billion each year. Recognizing, however, that an alternative to indoor tanning may be the riskier practice of sunbathing, the present paper offers a rational-choice model for addressing the individual’s indoor and outdoor tanning decisions, which is applied to examining his or her response to the imposition of a tan tax and the consequent effect on the hazard of developing skin cancer. The paper challenges the AAD’s forecast, identifying conditions under which a tan tax will rather exacerbate the hazard of skin cancer.
The Game of Monetary Policy, Inflation and Economic Growth  [PDF]
Gladys Wauk, Gideon Adjorlolo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73022
Abstract: Ghana has been confronted with series of economic problems to the extent of calling on the IMF for a bailout after every eight years. This situation has persisted in spite of various monetary authority stabilization policies. This paper therefore focuses on investigating the games of monetary policy, inflation and economic growth of the Ghanaian economy for the period of 1982-2017. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) to cointegration model, it was revealed from the study that in the long run interest rate significantly influences economic growth but in a negative direction, implies that a higher interest rate has the tendency to restrained economic growth and inflationary pressures. In relation to exchange rate, the long run result indicates an insignificant negative effect on economic growth. The general results suggest that macroeconomic variable which influences economic growth is interest rate and exchange rate. This is evidence that macroeconomic instabilities have significant effect on economic growth. This therefore calls for fiscal discipline and autonomy power to the Bank of Ghana with less interreference from the government to enable the smooth implementation of monetary policies without any string of politics attached.
Comparison between Auditory and Visual Simple Reaction Times  [PDF]
Jose Shelton, Gideon Praveen Kumar
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2010.11004
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the simple reaction time was faster for auditory or visual stimulus and the factors responsible for improving the performance of the athlete. Methodology: 14 subjects were as- signed randomly into groups consisting of 2 members. Both the members from each group performed both the visual and auditory tests. The tests were taken from the DirectRT software program from a laptop. The DirectRT software consists of Testlabvisual and Testlabsounds to test the reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli. The 2 members from each group completed both the visual and auditory reaction times, the data was taken and the mean reaction time was calculated excluding the first and last values. Results: The results show that the mean visual reaction time is around 331 milliseconds as compared to the mean auditory reaction time of around 284 milliseconds. Conclusion: This shows that the auditory reaction time is faster than the visual reaction time. And also males have faster reaction times when compared to females for both auditory as well as visual stimuli.
Evaluation of Stress Strain Patterns in a Stentless Aortic Valve and Its Leaflets  [PDF]
Gideon Praveen Kumar, Lazar Mathew
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.21007
Abstract: Objective: To design a new trileaflet aortic valve and investigate its mechanical behavior using finite ele- ment methods. Background: Quantification of aortic valve deformation during cardiac cycle is essential in understanding normal and pathological valvular function and eventually in the design of valves. We have designed and analyzed a new tissue valve model to investigate the mechanics of the valve and its components. Methods: Steps involves in 3D CAD based geometric modeling of a trileaflet aortic valve and the effects of different component dimensions on the mechanical behavior of valve is presented in this paper. Conceptual designing of individual components was used to build the total geometric model. Different physiological pressures were applied on the valve model and its deformation patterns were studied. Results: A new geometric model of a trileaflet aortic valve was designed. Its mechanical behavior was studied. Geometric analysis and simulation of these models enhanced the designer to optimize the geometry suitable for performance during and after implantation. Conclusion: The geometry-based model presented here allows determining quickly if the new set of valve component dimensions results in a functional valve. This is of great interest to designers of new prosthetic heart valve models, as well as to surgeons involved in valve- sparing surgery.
Finite element analysis of a percutaneous aortic valve stent design  [PDF]
Gideon Praveen Kumar, Lazar Mathew
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.11002
Abstract: Aim: This paper discusses the design and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of a Percutaneous Aor-tic Valve Stent. The aim of this study was to model a percutaneous aortic valve stent and subject it to finite element analysis. The design process was carried out to meet the functional and surgical requirements. Methods and Results: Analysis was done with different materials with loads ranging from 50 kgf/mm² to 73 kgf/mm². These forces were selected because these val-ues are far greater than the normal human blood pressure which ranges from 10kPa to 16kPa. It was also to understand the mechanical behavior of different stent materials under such high pressures. A stent model was generated and its physical, mechanical and behavioral properties were studied. Finite element analysis and simulation of the model enhanced the designer to optimize the geometry suitable for perform-ance during and after implantation. The design objective for the stent is to have long term du-rability, low thrombogenicity, resistance to mi-gration and paravalvular leak. Conclusion: The analysis performed in this paper may aid in understanding the stent’s tolerable pressures ranges in comparison with the physiological pressures exerted by the heart and cardiac blood flow during abnormal cardiovascular conditions.
Post-Optimality Analysis of Energy Consumption Model and Utility Application  [PDF]
Sunday A. Reju, Gideon Gope
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.414052
Abstract: Problems associated with energy distribution, consumption and management are undoubtedly some of the most significant problems that energy utilities face globally. For instance, when development takes place, the demand for electrical power and in particular domestic electrical energy also increases. Thus improvement of energy distribution policies becomes important for utilities and energy decision making agencies. The authors had earlier [1] [2] provided a mixed strategy 2-player game model for a residential energy consumption profile for winter and summer seasons of the year using a dual-occupancy high-rise (11-storey) building located within the Polytechnic of Namibia, Windhoek. The optimum energy values and the corresponding probabilities obtained from the model extend the usual simple statistical analyses of minimum and maximum energy values and their associated percentages. The time-block and the week-day strategies depict critical probabilistic values worth considering for decision purposes, especially, the necessity and justification for a dual tariff regime for the residential and workplace residents of the building as against the existing institutional uniform energy tariff policy. However, this paper presents extended results of post-optimality analyses for the winter and summer seasons, and thus provides the optimal range of energy values over which the energy consumption can change without changing the optimal tariff estimate parameters obtained from the mixed strategy of critical energy game values. The post-optimality analyses also provide extended information on the mixed strategy of non-optimal week-day solutions obtained from the game model, hence validating one of the essential roles of sensitivity analysis, namely, investigation of sub-optimal solutions. From application point of view, the post-optimality model provides a useful tool for Utilities, especially for identifying flexibility range of optimal break-even energy values for consumers, such as in the informal settlements where metering is rather a challenge to determine varied or non-uniform tariffs.
Bis[tris(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine-κP](tropolonato-κ2O,O′)copper(I)
Gideon Steyl
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809010630
Abstract: The title compound, [Cu(C7H5O2)(C18H12F3P)2], a copper(I) tris(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine tropolonate derivative, is the first tropolonate complex with fluorinated arylphosphine ligands. The CuI atom has a distorted tetrahedral coordination; the most important geometrical parameters of the molecule are: Cu—P = 2.2377 (10) and 2.2335 (15) , Cu—O = 2.084 (2) and 2.082 (2) , O—Cu—O = 77.72 (10)°, P—Cu—P = 128.82 (4)° and O—C—C—O = 2.1 (5)°.
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