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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325331 matches for " Gibor S. Basri "
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Rotation Periods, Variability Properties and Ages for Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars
Lucianne M. Walkowicz,Gibor S. Basri
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1700
Abstract: We report rotation periods, variability characteristics, gyrochronological ages for ~950 of the Kepler Object of Interest host stars. We find a wide dispersion in the amplitude of the photometric variability as a function of rotation, likely indicating differences in the spot distribution among stars. We use these rotation periods in combination with published spectroscopic measurements of vsini and stellar parameters to derive the stellar inclination in the line-of-sight, and find a number of systems with possible spin-orbit misalignment. We additionally find several systems with close-in planet candidates whose stellar rotation periods are equal to or twice the planetary orbital period, indicative of possible tidal interactions between these planets and their parent stars. If these systems survive validation to become confirmed planets, they will provide important clues to the evolutionary history of these systems.
The Information Content in Analytic Spot Models of Broadband Precision Lightcurves
Lucianne M. Walkowicz,Gibor S. Basri,Jeff A. Valenti
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/205/2/17
Abstract: We present the results of numerical experiments to assess degeneracies in lightcurve models of starspots. Using synthetic lightcurves generated with the Cheetah starspot modeling code, we explore the extent to which photometric light curves constrain spot model parameters, including spot latitudes and stellar inclination. We also investigate the effects of spot parameters and differential rotation on one's ability to correctly recover rotation periods and differential rotation in the Kepler lightcurves. We confirm that in the absence of additional constraints on the stellar inclination, such as spectroscopic measurements of vsini or occultations of starspots by planetary transits, the spot latitude and stellar inclination are difficult to determine uniquely from the photometry alone. We find that for models with no differential rotation, spots that appear on opposite hemispheres of the star may cause one to interpret the rotation period to be half of the true period. When differential rotation is included, the changing longitude separation between spots breaks the symmetry of the hemispheres and the correct rotation period is more likely to be found. The dominant period found via periodogram analysis is typically that of the largest spot. Even when multiple spots with periods representative of the star's differential rotation exist, if one spot dominates the lightcurve the signal of differential rotation may not be detectable from the periodogram alone. Starspot modeling is applicable to stars with a wider range of rotation rates than other surface imaging techniques (such as Doppler imaging), allows subtle signatures of differential rotation to be measured, and may provide valuable information on the distribution of stellar spots. However, given the inherent degeneracies and uncertainty present in starspot models, caution should be exercised in their interpretation.
Rotation and H-alpha Emission Above and Below the Substellar Boundary
Gibor Basri
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: I present the results of a multiyear survey of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, at high spectral resolution. The spectra were gathered with the HIRES echelle at the Keck Observatory. Some of these objects are stellar and others are substellar (or ambiguous). Early indications that such objects can be rapidly rotating but display little H-alpha emission turn out to be commonly true. This is the opposite of the relation between rotation and activity in solar-type stars. The H-alpha surface flux drops precipitously at the bottom of the main sequence, and seems to be related to the luminosity or temperature of the objects. There is a general trend to higher rotation velocities as one looks at objects of lower luminosity. I discuss several possible explanations for these results. The dynamos for these objects are probably fully turbulent, driven by convection, and thus more directly related to the object's luminosity. They may be quenched when the rotational velocities become too fast in comparison to the convective velocities (supersaturation). Another possibility is that the atmospheres of the cooler objects are becoming sufficiently neutral to decouple atmospheric motions from the field. Either of these could explain why young brown dwarfs can be magnetically active while older brown dwarfs are not. A final possibility is that instead of being quenched, the field configuration in rapid rotators changes to a less conducive form for dissipative heating. This could explain why flares are occasionally seen on generally inactive objects.
A Volume-limited Sample of 63 M7-M9.5 Dwarfs II. Activity, magnetism, and the fade of the rotation-dominated dynamo
Ansgar Reiners,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/710/2/924
Abstract: In a volume-limited sample of 63 ultracool dwarfs of spectral type M7-M9.5, we have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with UVES at the Very Large Telescope and HIRES at Keck Observatory. In this second paper, we present projected rotation velocities, average magnetic field strengths, and chromospheric emission from the Halpha line. We confirm earlier results that the mean level of normalized Halpha luminosity decreases with lower temperature, and we find that the scatter among Halpha luminosities is larger at lower temperature. We measure average magnetic fields between 0 and 4kG with no indication for a dependence on temperature between M7 and M9.5. For a given temperature, Halpha luminosity is related to magnetic field strength, consistent with results in earlier stars. A few very slowly rotating stars show very weak magnetic fields and Halpha emission, all stars rotating faster than our detection limit show magnetic fields of at least a few hundred Gauss. In contrast to earlier-type stars, we observe magnetic fields weaker than 1kG in stars rotating faster than ~3km/s, but we find no correlation between rotation and magnetic flux generation among them. We interpret this as a fundamental change in the dynamo mechanism; in ultracool dwarfs, magnetic field generation is predominantly achieved by a turbulent dynamo, while other mechanisms can operate more efficiently at earlier spectral type.
On the magnetic topology of partially and fully convective stars
Ansgar Reiners,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:200811450
Abstract: We compare the amount of magnetic flux measured in Stokes V and Stokes I in a sample of early- and mid-M stars around the boundary to full convection (~M3.5). Early-M stars possess a radiative core, mid-M stars are fully convective. While Stokes V is sensitive to the net polarity of magnetic flux arising mainly from large-scale configurations, Stokes I measurements can see the total mean flux. We find that in early-M dwarfs, only ~6% of the total magnetic flux is detected in Stokes V. This ratio is more than twice as large, ~14%, in fully convective mid-M dwarfs. The bulk of the magnetic flux on M-dwarfs is not seen in Stokes V. This is presumably because magnetic flux is mainly stored in small scale components. There is also more to learn about the effect of the weak-field approximation on the accuracy of strong field detections. In our limited sample, we see evidence for a change in magnetic topology at the boundary to full convection. Fully convective stars store a 2-3 times higher fraction of their flux in fields visible to Stokes V. We estimate the total magnetic energy detected in Stokes I and compare it to results from Stokes V. We find that in early-M dwarfs only ~0.5% of the total magnetic energy is detected in Stokes V while this fraction is ~2.5% in mid-M dwarfs.
Rotation and Activity in Mid-M to L Dwarfs
Subhanjoy Mohanty,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345097
Abstract: We analyze rotation velocities and chromospheric (H-alpha) activity, derived from multi-year, high-resolution spectra, in 56 mid-M to L dwarfs. Rotational velocities are found to increase from mid-M to L. This is consistent with a lengthening of spin-down timescale with later type, though in the L types the trend may also be a function of stellar age. From M5 to M8.5, a saturation-type rotation-activity relation is seen, similar to that in earlier types. However, the saturation velocity in our case is much higher, at about 12 km/s. A sharp drop in activity is observed at about M9, with later types showing little or no H-alpha emission, in spite of rapid rotation. This may be due to the very high resistivities in the predominantly neutral atmospheres of these cool objects.
Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga
Russel White,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344673
Abstract: We present high resolution optical spectra obtained with the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck I telescope of low mass T Tauri stars and brown dwarfs (LMTTs) in Taurus-Auriga. Of particular interest is the previously classified "continuum T Tauri star" GM Tau, which has a spectral type of M6.5 and a mass just below the stellar/substellar boundary. None of the LMTTs in Taurus are rapidly rotating (vsini < 30 km/s), unlike low mass objects in Orion. Many of the slowly rotating, non-accreting stars and brown dwarfs exhibit prominent H-alpha emission (EWs of 3 - 36 A), indicative of active chromospheres. We demonstrate empirically that the full-width at 10% of the H-alpha emission profile peak is a more practical and possibly more accurate indicator of accretion than either the equivalent width of H-alpha or optical veiling: 10%-widths > 270 km/s are classical T Tauri stars (i.e. accreting), independent of stellar spectral type. Although LMTTs can have accretion rates comparable to that of more typical, higher-mass T Tauri stars (e.g. K7-M0), the average mass accretion rate appears to decrease with decreasing mass. The diminished frequency of accretion disks for LMTTs, in conjunction with their lower, on average, mass accretion rates, implies that they are formed with less massive disks than higher-mass T Tauri stars. The radial velocities, circumstellar properties and known binaries do not support the suggestion that many of the lowest mass members of Taurus have been ejected from higher stellar density regions within the cloud. Instead, LMTTs appear to have formed and are evolving in the same way as higher-mass T Tauri stars, but with smaller disks and shorter disk lifetimes.
Profiles of Strong Permitted Lines in Classical T Tauri Stars
Silvia Alencar,Gibor Basri
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301300
Abstract: We present a spectral analysis of 30 T Tauri stars observed with the Hamilton echelle spectrograph over more than a decade. One goal is to test magnetospheric accretion model predictions. Observational evidence previously published supporting the model, such as emission line asymmetry and a high frequency of redshifted absorption components, are considered. We also discuss the relation between different line forming regions and search for good accretion rate indicators. In this work we confirm several important points of the models, such as the correlation between accretion and outflow, broad emission components that are mostly central or slightly blueshifted and only the occasional presence of redshifted absorption. We also show, however, that the broad emission components supposedly formed in the magnetospheric accretion flow only partially support the models. Unlike the predictions, they are sometimes redshifted, and are mostly found to be symmetric. The published theoretical profiles do not have a strong resemblance to our observed ones. We emphasize the need for accretion models to include a strong turbulent component before their profiles will match the observations. The effects of rotation, and the outflow components, will also be needed to complete the picture.
PPl 15: The First Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Binary
Gibor Basri,Eduardo Martin
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/301079
Abstract: PPl 15 is the first object to have been confirmed as a brown dwarf by the lithium test (in 1995), though its inferred mass was very close to the substellar limit. It is a member of the Pleiades open cluster. Its position in a cluster color-magnitude diagram suggested that it might be binary, and preliminary indications that it is a double-lined spectroscopic binary were reported by us in 1997. Here we report on the results of a consecutive week of Keck HIRES observations of this system, which yield its orbit. It has a period of about 5.8 days, and an eccentricity of 0.4+/-0.05. The rotation of the stars is slow for this class of objects. Because the system luminosity is divided between 2 objects with a mass ratio of 0.85, this renders each of them an incontrovertible brown dwarf, with masses between 60-70 jupiters. We show that component B is a little redder than A by studying their wavelength-dependent line ratios, and that this variation is compatible with the mass ratio. We confirm that the system has lithium, but cannot support the original conclusion that it is depleted (which would be surprising, given the new masses). This is a system of very close objects which, if they had combined, would have produced a low mass star. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the theories of binary formation and formation of very low mass objects.
The Mass and Age of Very Low Mass Members of the Open Cluster Alpha Persei
Gibor Basri,Eduardo L. Martin
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306564
Abstract: We present spectroscopic optical and photometric infrared observations of 12 faint candidate members of the young open cluster Alpha Persei found by Prosser (1994). Keck HIRES echelle spectra provide radial and rotational velocity measurements for five objects, two of which are clearly nonmembers based on the radial velocities. These kinematic nonmembers also do not fit well in the V-I vs I-J cluster sequence. One additional faint object is likely a nonmember based on a low-resolution spectrum. Using HIRES, we have searched for the Li I resonance line. Combining the absence/presence of lithium and photometry of the faint Alpha Persei targets with confirmed membership constrains their ages and masses. The lack of lithium in AP J0323+4853 implies its age is greater than about 65 Myr, which is older than the cluster classical upper main-sequence turnoff age of 50 Myr. A similar age discrepancy is found in the Pleiades. We detect lithium in the faintest of our program stars, AP270, which implies a mass for it just at the substellar mass limit, given our adopted age and its luminosity. The membership of AP281 is in question because of its high radial velocity compared with the cluster mean. On the other hand AP281 lies on the photometric cluster sequence, and has a very high rotation velocity and H-alpha emission, indicating youth. If a member, its lack of lithium would push the minimum age of the cluster to 75 Myr, in agreement with a very recent upper main-sequence determination. In that case, AP270 would not be a brown dwarf.
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