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Environmental risk assessment using the Persian version of the Home Falls And Screening Tool (HOME FAST) in Iranian elderly
Bahareh Maghfouri,Afson Hassani Mehraban,Ghorban Taghizade,Gholam Reza Aminian
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: One of the common problems among older people is falling. Falling inside the houses and streets makes up a large incidence between Iranian elderly, then the effort to identify environmental factors at home and home modification can reduce falls and injury in the elderly. The aim of this study is identifying elderly at risk of fall with using screening tool (HOME FAST) and define reliability of this tool.Material and Methods: As a reliability, through the health housing of the town councils in five geographical regions of Tehran, 60 old person were selected. Participants aged 60 to 65 years and the HOME FAST tool was used in the two stages (inter rater and test-retest).Results: Test-retest reliability in the study showed that agreement between the items is over than 0.8, which shows very good reliability. The results showed that the relative of the each item in the Agreement between the domain is 1 - 0.65, which shows moderate to high reliability. And the results in this study showed that agreement between the items in Inter rater reliability is over than 0.8, which shows the level of reliability is very good. Also it showed that the relative of the each item in the agreement between the domain is 1 - 0.01, which shows poor to high reliability.Conclusion: This study shows that the reliability of the HOME FAST is high. The findings of these comments have been expected that the test objectives were appropriate to prevent falls and the tools showed acceptable reliability, then this test can be used as a tool for to professionals.
Category-Based Intrusion Detection Using PCA  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Zargar, Tania Baghaie
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.34033
Abstract: Existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) examine all the network features to detect intrusion or misuse patterns. In feature-based intrusion detection, some selected features may found to be redundant, useless or less important than the rest. This paper proposes a category-based selection of effective parameters for intrusion detection using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). In this paper, 32 basic features from TCP/IP header, and 116 derived features from TCP dump are selected in a network traffic dataset. Attacks are categorized in four groups, Denial of Service (DoS), Remote to User attack (R2L), Remote to User attack (U2R) and Probing attack. TCP dump from DARPA 1998 dataset is used in the experiments as the selected dataset. PCA method is used to determine an optimal feature set to make the detection process faster. Experimental results show that feature reduction can improve detection rate for the category-based detection approach while maintaining the detection accuracy within an acceptable range. In this paper KNN classification method is used for the classification of the attacks. Experimental results show that feature reduction will significantly speed up the train and the testing periods for identification of the intrusion attempts.
The effects of different autumn-seeded cover crops on subsequent irrigated corn response to nitrogen fertilizer  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Mohammadi, Mohammad Eghbal Ghobadi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.13018
Abstract: A common crop rotation in the west Iran is wheat-fallow-corn. The fallow period after wheat harvest (during fall and winter) can lead to soil erosion, nutrient losses (e.g. nitrate leaching) and offsite movement of pesticides. This period is an ideal time to establish a cover crop. In order to investigate the effects of different autumn-seeded cover crops on subsequent irrigated corn response to nitrogen fertilizer, field studies were carried out during the 2007-2008 growing season at the Agricultural Research Farm, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted in a split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots consisted of four cover crops including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and a control (no cover crop). The sub plots consisted of two fertilizer N rates (0 and 250 kg ha-1). Cover crops were grown for nearly 5 months and then were incorporated into the soil as green manures. The results indicated that corn plant traits including seed yield, the number of seeds per ear and leaf chlorophyll content were significantly influenced by cover crops. Whereas, the cover crops had no signif-icant effects on the number of ears per plant, 100-seed weight and harvest index of corn. Among the cover crop species, common vetch produced higher dry weight and showed the highest positive effects on the corn plant traits. Dry weight produced by this cover crop was 56.41, 120.16 and 124.19% higher than those of winter rye, berseem clover and alfalfa, respectively. Common vetch enhanced seed yield, the number of seeds per ear and leaf chlorophyll content of corn by 46.30, 21.95 and 8.52%, respectively, compared to control. All of the corn traits under study, except the number of ears per plant and harvest index were significantly improved by nitrogen fertilizer. In general, this study revealed that the autumn-seeded cover crops, especially common vetch can be used to improve corn yield. However, the cover crops should be supplemented with nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimal results.
Mechanical Characteristics of Superaustenitic Stainless Steel Type 30Cr25Ni32Mo3 at Elevated Temperatures  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Ebrahimi, Hamid Keshmiri, Hadi Arabshahi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.16047
Abstract: In making tubes of corrosion resistant and hardly deformed steels and alloys, the pilger rolling method is used for hot rolling of final thick-walled tubes or mother tubes of large diameters (above 300 mm) and small quantities of other size tubes when no other, more efficient tube rolling or extrusion equipment is available. To clarify individual parameters of the production process and make choice of the deformation-and-temperature parameters, mechanical properties of the alloy type 30Cr25Ni32Mo3 Superaustenitic Stainless Steel at various temperatures were studied. The tests have been performed using samples taken from the forged 400 mm diameter billet to determine strength and plastic properties of the billet metal at various temperatures and its macro- and microstructure. The test results will be used in the choice of optimum conditions of preheating of the billets and hot rolling of tubes. On the whole, it should be stated that as-forged alloy 30Cr25Ni32Mo3 features a favorable combination of strength and plastic properties in the hot-working temperature range of 1075-1200?C.
Preparation and Optical Properties Assessment of CdSe Quantum Dots  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Amiri, Soheil Fatahian, Somayeh Mahmoudi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.42015
Abstract:

CdSe quantum dots (QDs) (2 - 3 nm) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Optical and structure properties of the products were investigated by scanning tunneling microscope (STM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that high-quality cubic CdSe QDs were obtained. It is also obtained that temperature is one of the most important factors the affect on the particle size and optical properties of the prepared QDs samples.

The Application of Geostatistical Methods to Prepare the 3D Petrophysical Model of Oil Reservoir  [PDF]
Hakimeh Amanipoor, Mohammad Ghafoori, Gholam Reza Lashkaripour
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.31002
Abstract: In this study, the petrophysical parameters such as density, sonic, neutron, and porosity were investigated and presented in the 3D models. The 3D models were built using geostatistical method that is used to estimate studied parameters in the entire reservoir. For this purpose, the variogram of each parameter was determined to specify spatial correlation of data. Resulted variograms were non-monotonic. That shows anisotropy of structure. The lithology and porosity parameters are the main causes of this anisotropy. The 3D models also show that petrophysical data has higher variation in north part of reservoir than south part. In addition to, the west limb of reservoir shows higher porosity than east limb. The variation of sonic and neutron data are similar whereas the density data has opposed variation.
Presentation of Empirical Equations for Estimating Internal Friction Angle of GW and GC Soils in Mashhad, Iran Using Standard Penetration and Direct Shear Tests and Comparison with Previous Equations  [PDF]
Pouya Salari, Gholam Reza Lashkaripour, Mohammad Ghafoori
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.55021
Abstract: Presentation of empirical equations for estimating engineering properties of soils is a simple, low cost and widely-used method. One of the major concerns in using these equations is evaluating their accuracy in different conditions and regions which often lead to doubts about obtained results. Most of these equations were derived in special laboratories, different climate conditions and in soils with different geotechnical and geological engineering properties and were generalized to other conditions. The main question is that whether these methods are also applicable to other conditions. Using local equations and narrowing the usage range of various methods based on each region’s properties are appropriate methods to solve these problems. This leads to simplified and faster analysis and high reliability in the obtained results. In this paper, empirical equations were derived to estimate internal friction angle, based on SPT numbers of Mashhad City’s soils in Iran, using SPT and direct shear tests results from 50 samples (25 GW and 25 GC soil samples). The results showed similar values for predicted?φ?values by SPT test and?φ?values determined by direct shear tests.
Temperature Estimation in the Combustion Chamber of an Internal Combustion Engine
Gholam Reza Safakish
Advances in Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/931584
Abstract: The mathematical model of heat transfer phenomena is considered at the combustion chamber wall in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The mathematical model of proposed phenomena is established with respect to the crank angle. An inverse heat conduction problem is derived at the cylinder wall, and this problem is investigated numerically using Alifanov's regularization method. This problem studied as an optimization problem in which a squared residual functional is minimized with the conjugate gradient method. To show the ability of the proposed method, some test problems are considered. 1. Introduction The solution of inverse heat transfer problems is becoming an essential part in the development of several relevant applications in engineering, such as design of thermal equipment, systems, and instruments. The use of inverse methods represent a new research direction, where the results obtained from numerical simulation and from experiments are not simply compared a posteriori, but a closed synergism exist between experimental and theoretical researches during a course of study, in order to obtain the maximum of information regarding the physical problem under consideration. Most of the methods for the solutions of inverse problems, which are currently in common use, were formalized in the last four decades in terms of their capabilities to treat ill-posed unstable problems. The basis of such formal methods resides on the idea of reformulating an inverse problem in terms of an approximate well-posed problem, by utilizing some kind of regularization techniques [1–10]. In the inverse analysis, most studies employed the nonlinear least-squares method [10–12] to determine the inverse problem. This method minimizes the formulation from the sum of the squares of the difference between the experimental measurements and the calculated response of the system. Based on the nonlinear least-squares method, various researchers have put their efforts in the field of inverse problems. In solving the problems, different algorithms have been adopted such as the conjugate gradient method, the Davidson-Fletcher-Powell method, the Monte-Carlo technique, the covariance analysis, and the dynamic programming. More sophisticated methods also have been developed such as the nonlinear least-squares formulation modified by the addition of a regularization term, the sequential estimation approach, and the adjoint equation approach coupled to the conjugate gradient method [1–7]. Motivation for the problem investigates here arises from the area of modeling of heat transfer
A Constructivist Model for the Technological Enhancement of University Materials
Gholam Reza Zarei
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ajit.2011.26.31
Abstract: This study is intended to theoretically provide a constructivist approach for the development of university materials to be enhanced with the new media. First, the study explains what merits multimodal technology can provide; second, explanations are supplied to show that the integration of the multimedia into the materials should engage learners and move away from teaching towards learner-driven and participatory learning on a par with constructivism as the appropriate paradigm for learning at the university level and third, a constructivist model for the development of technology enhanced materials is presented and explained. The model suggests that the technology enhanced materials must involve the use of the electronic tools to provoke thinking, debate, reflection and accommodation of multiple viewpoints.
Assessment of Physical Growth among the under 6 Years Children in Rural Area in Gorgan, Iran
Veghari,Gholam Reza
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: Growth monitoring in children has been known as the best index for assessment of nutritional status of a society. This study has been carried out to determine physical growth (Height and weight) and nutritional status of children less than 6 year of age, living in Gorgan city suburb villages. In this descriptive study, sampling was done in one-step, by clustering method, and about 10% (2802 persons) of rural children under 6 years were investigated. Weight and height were measured with accuracy of 0.1 kg and 0.1 cm respectively. The exact age of the children was obtained from the files kept in the rural health centers. Comparison of the groups was done with the help of t. test and NCHS standard as reference. The results indicate that girls have better somatic growth than the boys. The prevalence rate of malnutrition increases after the breast-feeding period. The boy`s 43.93% and 5.11% are under the 2SD NCHS standard for height and weight respectively. But the figures for the girls are 31.49% and 6.94% respectively. Chronic malnutrition (Delay in height growth) is observed more than the acute malnutrition (Delay in weight growth) in the children under 6 years living in Gorgan suburb villages. Malnutrition is more in boys than the girls, and increase after breast feeding period.
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