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Association between Plasma Myeloperoxidase and Free 3-Nitrotyrosine Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  [PDF]
Morteza Pourfarzam, Ahmad Movahedian, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Gholam Basati, Saed Ziaaldin Samsamshariat
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.43028
Abstract: Objective: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an inflammatory enzyme that is mainly released by activated neutrophils and monocytes. 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) is a stable inflammatory end product of MPO that is produced through nitrosylation of free and protein-bound tyrosines. Determination of the exact levels of free NT is technically a challenging matter. Also, there is limited information about the relationship between MPO and free NT levels and elevation of them in the plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we sought to determine the exact level of plasma free NT with a simple and exquisite technique in CAD patients. Methods: This study included 50 stable angina, 50 unstable angina patients, and 50 control subjects. Plasma MPO concentration was measured with an immunoassay method. Plasma free NT level was determined by a modified HPLC-fluorescence method. Lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and other clinical risk factors of patients were also assigned. Results: Plasma level of free NT was efficiently measured by the HPLC-fluorescence method. Plasma levels of MPO and NT were significantly higher in patients with stable and unstable CAD than in control subjects (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the two substances in CAD patients (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We determined plasma free NT levels with a sensitive HPLC-fluorescence method with some modifications in a clinical scale. Plasma levels of MPO and NT were profoundly elevated in CAD patients. The significant relationships of the two substances and elevation of them may have useful clinical implication in patients with stable and
Reduced plasma adiponectin levels relative to oxidized low density lipoprotein and nitric oxide in coronary artery disease patients
Basati, Gholam;Pourfarzam, Morteza;Movahedian, Ahmad;Samsamshariat, Saed Ziaaldin;Sarrafzadegan, Nizal;
Clinics , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000700002
Abstract: introduction: adiponectin is a circulating hormone that is produced exclusively by adipocytes and has antiinflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. the hypothesis that there are differences in adiponectin levels between stable and unstable coronary-artery disease patients remains controversial. furthermore, the potential relationships between the plasma adiponectin level and the inflammatory and non-inflammatory markers (oxidized low density lipoprotein and nitric oxide) in patients with stable and unstable coronary-artery disease relative to normal subjects have not been assessed. objectives: to assess whether plasma adiponectin levels differ among patients with stable and unstable coronary-artery disease and among control subjects, and to correlate plasma adiponectin level with inflammatory and clinical risk factors (such as oxidized-ldl and nitric oxide) in these patients. methods: this study included 50 control subjects, 50 stable angina patients and 50 unstable angina patients with angiographically documented coronary-artery disease. plasma adiponectin and oxidized-ldl levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. plasma nitric oxide, high sensitivity c-reactive protein and lipid profile levels were also measured. results: plasma adiponectin levels were lower in the unstable angina patients (4.9 ± 1.30 μg/ml) than in the stable angina patients (6.34 ± 1.0 μg/ml) or in the controls (9.25 ± 1.8 μg/ml); these levels were also significantly lower in stable angina patients versus controls (p<0.001). plasma adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with oxidized-ldl, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, lipid profile and other clinical risk factors but positively correlated with nitric oxide. conclusion: plasma adiponectin levels were found to be lower in both stable and unstable angina patients relative to control subjects, and the correlation between plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular markers is weakened in these patients.
Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein
Maryam Boshtam,Amirnader Emami Razavi,Morteza Pourfarzam,Mohsen Ani,Gholam Ali Naderi,Gholam Basati,Marjan Mansourian,Narges Jafari Dinani,Seddigheh Asgary,Soheila Abdi
Disease Markers , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/612035
Abstract: Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. 1. Introduction Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a 45?kDa glycoprotein which can catalyze the hydrolysis of various organophosphates and nerve agents [1, 2] and also metabolize some drugs and prodrugs by its lactonase activity [3]. This enzyme which is located on high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles protects low density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipids against oxidation [4]. Decreased PON1 activity has been addressed in several diseases such as coronary artery diseases (CAD) [5], type I diabetes [6], obesity [7], and renal failure [8]. It is evident that PON1 activity is influenced by a variety of agents like environmental, pharmacological, and lifestyle factors as well as age and sex [2, 5, 9–11]. Dietary fats have been suggested as an important relevant factor [12, 13]. Studies have presented that dietary fatty acids may affect PON1 activity [14]. Polyenoic fatty acids have shown considerable inhibitory effect on PON1 activity [15], while monoenoic acids (especially oleic acid) protect PON1 from oxidative inactivation [16]. It has been also indicated that replacement of dietary saturated fats with trans fats in healthy men and women leads to a small reduction in the serum PON1 activity [17]. Serum PON1 is almost exclusively found in association with HDL particles. The lipid
Conformational and Bonding Analysis of C2H42+  [PDF]
Gholam Hossein Shafiee
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2012.23023
Abstract: In this report, different models of bonding and structure such as Lewis, VSEPR, Ligand close packing (LCP), VB, qualitative MO and QTAIM have been applied to analyze the Bonds and structures of two equilibrium geometries (planar D2h and perpendicular D2d) of C2H42+. The geometries were optimized at near RHF and MP2 limit using ccpVTZ basis set. While the above bonding models are successfully applied for predicting the low energy isomers of molecules, prior to solving the Schr?dinger equation, it is shown that the cited models fail in predicting the existence of perpendicular, D2d form of C2H42+. In this regard the interpretations of significant energetic stabilization of D2d form over planar isomer has also been revisited. This is attributed to the hidden effect of the Pauli Exclusion principle.
Effects of Exercise Rehabilitation on Blood Pressure of Patients After Myocardial Infarction
Mehdi Kargarfard,Reza Rouzbehani,Fatema Basati
International Journal of Preventive Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: Supervised exercise cardiac rehabilitation programs have been suggested to all patients specially patients with post-myocardial infarction (MI) for many years. However, limited information is available on the usefulness of exercise rehabilitation programs in chronic MI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of supervised exercise training on MI patients by measuring both physical and physiological factors.Methods: This was a semi-experimental randomized study. Itincluded seventy two (35 cases, 37 controls) post-MI patients aged 40 to 67 years. They wererandomly selected from those with MI based on WHO criteria who were referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit of Isfahan Shahid-Chamrancardiovascular research center. After initial mea-surements includingweight, height, functional capacity, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both resting and exercise states, , patients were randomized into either the training group (n =35) or the control group (n =37). The training group had supervised aerobic training program, three times a week, with 60-70% of the maximal heart rate (HR) reserve for two months. After the training program was completed, all measurements were repeated in both groups. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANO-VA) with repeated measures.Results: Patients in exercise group showed statistically significant improvement inresting HR (81.27±7.75 bpm vs. 74.17±10.11bpm, p≤0.001), resting SBP (125.92±9.30 mmHg vs. 123.54±6.82 mmHg, p≤0.01), SBP peak (150.22±7.12 mmHg vs. 133.54±6.82 mmHg, p≤0.001), HR peak (132.51±3.06 bpm vs. 142.00±3.14bpm, p≤0.001), and exercise capacity (8.49±1.18 METs vs. 9.42±1.19 METs, p≤0.01).Conclusions: The results from the study showed that a 2-month exercise rehabilitationprogram in post-MI patients is useful for improving both blood pressure and exercisecapacity and should be encouraged more commonly.
Secondary Merkel Cell Carcinoma Manifested in the Parotid
M. Basati,K. Kassam,A. Messiha
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/960140
Abstract: Background. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a rare and aggressive malignant tumour. Both the dermatological and surgical colleagues should be aware of this entity as lesions usually present on sun exposed areas of the skin such as the head and neck. Main Observation and Treatment. A 69-year-old male originally presented to the maxillofacial surgery department with a growing lesion on the left eyebrow. Histological analysis confirmed Merkel cell carcinoma and consequently surgical excision was carried out. A follow-up PET/CT scan 2 years later demonstrated a hotspot in the left parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration and cytology revealed Merkel cell carcinoma. A subtotal parotidectomy left side with ipsilateral selective neck dissection levels I to III was carried out. Conclusions. Potential secondary Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck region should be taken into account when planning short- and long-term follow up for previously diagnosed patients. This followup should involve both dermatological and surgical colleagues. 1. Introduction Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumour of neuroendocrine origin, with incidence being reported as low as 0.44/100?000 cases a year [1]. Clinical diagnosis is difficult due to a nonspecific appearance. Often the lesion presents as a nonindurated and slightly erythematous nodule. The most common location of the lesion is on sun exposed areas of the skin, with UVB radiation posing an increased risk [2]. Epidemiological studies reveal further risk in immunocompromised patients and Caucasian patients older than 50 [3]. Furthermore 48% of lesions are diagnosed in the head and neck region, with 61% of patients being male [4]. Heath et al. [3] use a favourable acronym when looking at typical clinical features at presentation: AEIOU, asymptomatic, enlarging rapidly, immunosuppression, older age, and UV exposed site. MCC has a poor 5-year prognosis, with a 75% survival for local disease and 50% for regional [5]. The prognosis is even poorer for: (1) male patients, (2) primaries of T2 size and extension, (3) nodal involvement, (4) and if metastatic disease is present [4]. The frequency of both local and regional spread of disease is high, with up to 21% of cases developing distant metastatic lesions [6]. Common sites of metastasis have been described as lymph nodes, mediastinum, lung, liver, and bone [7]. The mortality rate of MCC is twice that of melanoma [8]. Even with this aggressive nature of the disease and high risk of mortality, the awareness of MCC is poor amongst
Category-Based Intrusion Detection Using PCA  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Zargar, Tania Baghaie
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.34033
Abstract: Existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) examine all the network features to detect intrusion or misuse patterns. In feature-based intrusion detection, some selected features may found to be redundant, useless or less important than the rest. This paper proposes a category-based selection of effective parameters for intrusion detection using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). In this paper, 32 basic features from TCP/IP header, and 116 derived features from TCP dump are selected in a network traffic dataset. Attacks are categorized in four groups, Denial of Service (DoS), Remote to User attack (R2L), Remote to User attack (U2R) and Probing attack. TCP dump from DARPA 1998 dataset is used in the experiments as the selected dataset. PCA method is used to determine an optimal feature set to make the detection process faster. Experimental results show that feature reduction can improve detection rate for the category-based detection approach while maintaining the detection accuracy within an acceptable range. In this paper KNN classification method is used for the classification of the attacks. Experimental results show that feature reduction will significantly speed up the train and the testing periods for identification of the intrusion attempts.
Application of Nanoparticles in Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors  [PDF]
Somayeh Heydari, Gholam Hossein Haghayegh
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2014.42009
Nanoparticles are playing an increasingly important role in the development of biosensors. The sensitivity and performance of biosensors are being improved by using Nanoparticles for their construction. The use of these Nanoparticles has allowed the introduction of many new signal transduction technologies in biosensors. In this report, a comprehensive review of application of nanoparticles in Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensors is presented. The main advantages of QCM in sensing fields include high sensitivity, high stability, fast response and low cost. In addition, it provides label-free detection capability for bio-sensing applications. Firstly, basic QCM’s design and characterization are described. Next, QCM biosensors based on modification of quartz substrate structure and their applications are digested. Nanoparticles and their utilizationin analysis are then illustrated. These include Nanoparticles in bio applications that cover Nanoparticles in Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensors.
The effects of different autumn-seeded cover crops on subsequent irrigated corn response to nitrogen fertilizer  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Mohammadi, Mohammad Eghbal Ghobadi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.13018
Abstract: A common crop rotation in the west Iran is wheat-fallow-corn. The fallow period after wheat harvest (during fall and winter) can lead to soil erosion, nutrient losses (e.g. nitrate leaching) and offsite movement of pesticides. This period is an ideal time to establish a cover crop. In order to investigate the effects of different autumn-seeded cover crops on subsequent irrigated corn response to nitrogen fertilizer, field studies were carried out during the 2007-2008 growing season at the Agricultural Research Farm, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted in a split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots consisted of four cover crops including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and a control (no cover crop). The sub plots consisted of two fertilizer N rates (0 and 250 kg ha-1). Cover crops were grown for nearly 5 months and then were incorporated into the soil as green manures. The results indicated that corn plant traits including seed yield, the number of seeds per ear and leaf chlorophyll content were significantly influenced by cover crops. Whereas, the cover crops had no signif-icant effects on the number of ears per plant, 100-seed weight and harvest index of corn. Among the cover crop species, common vetch produced higher dry weight and showed the highest positive effects on the corn plant traits. Dry weight produced by this cover crop was 56.41, 120.16 and 124.19% higher than those of winter rye, berseem clover and alfalfa, respectively. Common vetch enhanced seed yield, the number of seeds per ear and leaf chlorophyll content of corn by 46.30, 21.95 and 8.52%, respectively, compared to control. All of the corn traits under study, except the number of ears per plant and harvest index were significantly improved by nitrogen fertilizer. In general, this study revealed that the autumn-seeded cover crops, especially common vetch can be used to improve corn yield. However, the cover crops should be supplemented with nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimal results.
Mechanical Characteristics of Superaustenitic Stainless Steel Type 30Cr25Ni32Mo3 at Elevated Temperatures  [PDF]
Gholam Reza Ebrahimi, Hamid Keshmiri, Hadi Arabshahi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.16047
Abstract: In making tubes of corrosion resistant and hardly deformed steels and alloys, the pilger rolling method is used for hot rolling of final thick-walled tubes or mother tubes of large diameters (above 300 mm) and small quantities of other size tubes when no other, more efficient tube rolling or extrusion equipment is available. To clarify individual parameters of the production process and make choice of the deformation-and-temperature parameters, mechanical properties of the alloy type 30Cr25Ni32Mo3 Superaustenitic Stainless Steel at various temperatures were studied. The tests have been performed using samples taken from the forged 400 mm diameter billet to determine strength and plastic properties of the billet metal at various temperatures and its macro- and microstructure. The test results will be used in the choice of optimum conditions of preheating of the billets and hot rolling of tubes. On the whole, it should be stated that as-forged alloy 30Cr25Ni32Mo3 features a favorable combination of strength and plastic properties in the hot-working temperature range of 1075-1200?C.
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