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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 178 matches for " Ghodratollah Montazeri "
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Phylogenetic Analysis of HBV Based on PreS Region in Iranian Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Zahra Goodarzi,Reza Malekzaedeh,Ghodratollah Montazeri,Seyed-Moayed Alavian
Hepatitis Monthly , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aims: There are eight genotypes (A-H) of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which show a characteristic worldwide distribution. Genotyping can be accomplished based on a partial sequence of HBV genome such as the PreS or S gene. The aim of this study was to determine the HBV genotypes in Iranian hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with chronic HBV infection.Methods: Serum sample of 10 HCC patients with chronic HBV infection were subjected to PreS Hemi-Nested PCR. The viral genotype of each sample was determined by bi-directional sequencing of the PreS amplicon and phylogenetic analysis by comparing the nucleotide sequence with 33 reference HBV strains obtained from the GenBank.Results: Phylogenetic analysis based on PreS region sequences disclosed that all isolated strains belonged to genotype D. Analysis of sequences revealed that all the sequences contained amino acid substitutions. In the PreS2 region of two samples, a point mutation in the start codon was found. There were some deletions with 3, 6 and 8 amino acids in PreS2 region of three samples. Conclusions: Despite the low number of samples, these data revealed that the HBV genotype D is dominant in Iranian HCC patients. Most of the mutations are located at immunodominant epitopes involved in B or/and T cell recognition.
The inverse association of serum HBV DNA level with HDL and adiponectin in chronic hepatitis B infection
Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Kourosh Sayemiri, Reza Ghanbari, Elham Elahi, Hossein Poustchi, Ghodratollah Montazeri
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-228
Abstract: To investigate correlation between HBV DNA level with clinical parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis B, 92 male subjects with HBV infection without any risk factors for diabetes were enrolled in this study. Age and BMI of the study population were matched and HBV DNA, ALT, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin and lipid levels was measured.Serum HBV DNA correlated inversely with serum HDL level (r = -0.23; P = 0.014). The median of log copies/ml for HBV DNA (3.67) was considered as cut off point. Patients with HBV DNA level higher than cut off point had lower adiponectin (8.7 ± 5.3 vs 10.7 ± 4.9 μg/ml p = 0.05). Also, adiponectin had a negative correlation with TNF-α (r = -0.21, P = 0.04) and positive correlations with HDL (r = 0.18, P = 0.043).Multivariate regression models show that serum HDL level is an independed factor to predict serum HBV DNA.Our findings showed that higher HBV DNA levels are associated with lower HDL and adiponectin but induced TNF-alpha values.The broad outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can be divided into acute infection and chronic hepatitis [1]. The ongoing replication of HBV in chronic hepatitis induce oxidative stress and associated with liver inflammation, which over the course of years increases risk of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer [2,3]. Factors which determine viral replication and outcome of infection are not fully understood, although host factors are known to play a major role in this regard [4]. Among these factors, HDL, with several biological properties, including anti oxidative and anti inflammatory activities has a potential role to be a part of nonspecific immunity [5,6]. Adiponectin also attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production [7].The anti-inflammatory function of HDL involves induction transforming growth factor β which might function as an important mediator of the anti-inflammatory activity [8]. In chronic hepatitis B patients, serum HDL
The role of mutations in core protein of hepatitis B virus in liver fibrosis
Ashraf Mohamadkhani, Ferdous Jazii, Hossein Poustchi, Omidreza Nouraein, Shahsanam Abbasi, Masoud Sotoudeh, Ghodratollah Montazeri
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-209
Abstract: Worldwide, the 350 million people with chronic hepatitis B have a 15-25% risk of dying from HBV-related liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [1]. It is evident that 70-84% of cirrhotic patients and 72% of individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran have evidence of exposure to HBV [2].Naturally occurring mutations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome have an important role in the activity of HBV related liver diseases. Patients with long standing active liver disease are at high risk to develop liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma [3]. The genome of hepatitis B virus encodes four overlapping open reading frames that are translated to viral core protein or HBc particle, the surface proteins, a reverse transcriptase (RT), and HBx [4]. The core protein is the major polypeptide of the nucleocapsid that during virus assembly polymerizes around a complex consisting of pregenomic mRNA and viral polymerase [5]. Core protein with genotype D which is frequent in Iran [6] holding 183 amino acids with a set of closely linked α-helices [7] and consists of two distinct domains, an N-terminal domain with 144 residues required for the assembly of the 32 nm nucleocapsid and a functional C-terminal domain [5,8]. Empty core shells made from truncated HBc at residue 149 revealed the important role of C-terminal in viral genome binding and nuclear transport of the core protein [9-11]. The C-terminal arginine-rich domain with a high similarity to protamin, consists of three repeated SPRRR motifs corresponded to the part of core protein that interact closely with RNA [5]. In this domain phosphorylated site residues located in amino acid sequences 155-183. Immature nucleocapsids which contain RNA are phosphorylated at six sites, while the mature nucleocapsids which contain DNA are completely dephosphorylated either inside cells or in extracellular virions [9]. This phosphorylation clearly plays an important role in the regulation of the function of C-t
Clinical Feature of Intrahepatic B-Lymphocytes in Chronic Hepatitis B
Ashraf Mohamadkhani,Elnaz Naderi,Masoud Sotoudeh,Aezam Katoonizadeh,Ghodratollah Montazeri,Hossein Poustchi
International Journal of Inflammation , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/896864
Abstract: Humoral immunity constitutes major defense mechanism against viral infections. However, the association of hepatic injury and B-cells population in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers has not been studied well. In this study, fifty seven hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and HBeAg negative patients were studied to determine the expression of CD20, a cell surface marker expressed on B-cells, in liver biopsy sections using immunohistochemistry. The patients’ clinical data at the time of liver biopsy were acquired from their medical records. There was a significant association between log HBV DNA and both ALT ( , ) and histologic activity index (HAI) total score ( , ), respectively. The CD20 was expressed in all 57 liver biopsy samples with a submembranous and membranous staining pattern and its expression was significantly associated with HAI total score ( , ) and stage of fibrosis ( , ). The susceptible B lymphocytes to hepatitis B virus might be implicated in the development of immune mediated inflammation of HBV-induced hepatic injury. The present data also support that the liver is potentially one of the secondary lymphoid organs. 1. Introduction Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus (HBV) infection is the principal cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. The pathogenesis of HBV-related chronic liver disease is not well understood. However, it is clear that the immune mechanisms associated with the antiviral response are responsible for CHB outcome [2–4]. The existence of lymphocytes in the human liver is representing a pathological situation [5]. This concept stems from the observation that, in chronic hepatitis B, T-cells can potentially participate both in the immune clearance of HBV-infected cells and in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury [6]. Furthermore the numbers of B lymphocytes and plasma cells are significantly higher in patients with liver cirrhosis than of those with inactive chronic hepatitis [7, 8]. Enormous intrahepatic B-cells with massive production of IgM and IgG and infiltrating plasma cells into the hepatic lobules have also been shown in HBV-associated chronic active hepatitis [9]. B-cells contribute to immune responses through the secretion of effector cytokines and it has been suggested that naive and memory B-cell subsets preferentially produce different effector cytokines [10, 11]. Na?ve B-cells undergo maturation by somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin variable region of the B-cell receptor (BCR) genes following contact with a specific protein accessible on dendritic cells. Then the
The Possible Role of TLR2 in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Precore Mutation
Malihe Moradzadeh,Sirous Tayebi,Hossein Poustchi,Kourosh Sayehmiri,Parisa Shahnazari,Elnaz Naderi,Ghodratollah Montazeri,Ashraf Mohamadkhani
Advances in Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/780319
Abstract: Recognition mechanisms of innate immune response help to improve immunotherapeutic strategies in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is an important component of innate immunity. In this study, the frequency of precore mutations of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and serum TLR2 were evaluated in CHB patients. Fifty-one patients with chronic hepatitis B, negative for HBeAg and detectable HBV DNA, were examined for the presence of mutations in pre-core region of HBV genome by direct sequencing. Serum TLR2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Interactions of truncated HBeAg and TLR2 proteins were evaluated with molecular docking software. The G1896A pre-core mutation were detected in 29 (57%) which was significantly associated with higher concentration of serum TLR2 in comparison with patients without this mutation (4.8 2.9 versus 3.4 2.2?ng/mL, ). There was also a significant correlation between serum ALT and TLR-2 ( ; ). Docking results illustrated residues within the N-terminus of truncated HBeAg and TLR2, which might facilitate the interaction of these proteins. These findings showed the dominance of G1896A pre-core mutation of HBV variants in this community which was correlated with serum TLR2. Moreover TLR2 is critical for induction of inflammatory cytokines and therefore ALT elevation. 1. Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. The transmission of HBV from infected mothers to neonates causes persistent infection [2]. Chronic infection of HBV is a global health problem. However, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV are different among the geographical areas [3]. The majority of chronic hepatitis B patients lose HBe antigen (HBeAg) and develop anti-HBe antibody, which is generally associated with a decrease in serum HBV DNA levels and a gradual accumulation of precore or core promoter mutations [4]. HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B is the predominant type of CHB in Mediterranean inhabitants [3]. Two types of precore and core promoter HBV mutations that reduce HBeAg formation are more frequent in regions where patients are predominantly infected with HBV genotype D [4, 5]. Infection with wild-type strains of HBV often induces mild symptoms and responds well to interferon alpha therapy, but patients infected with precore mutant variants may show clinical evidence of elevated or fluctuating ALT and HBV DNA [6]. The reason that precore negative mutants become predominant in some patients during
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN AUTO INDUSTRY: AN IRANIAN PERSPECTIVE
Ghodratollah Talaei,Mehran Nejati
Lex et Scientia , 2008,
Abstract: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept which suggests organizations, especially (but not only) corporations, have an obligation to consider the interests of customers, employees, shareholders, communities, and ecological considerations in all aspects of their operations. CSR is closely linked with the principles of Sustainable Development, which argues that enterprises should make decisions not only based on financial factors such as profits or dividends, but also based on the immediate and long-term social and environmental consequences of their activities. In the absence of evidence of the research in the area of CSR in auto industry domain in Iran, the current paper may be a starting-point for a debate and possible strategies to implement CSR concept in this area. Also, CSR indicators for assessing companies’ of the industry based on their commitment toward their social responsibilities are proposed in this research. These indicators can also be adapted with appropriate modifications to meet th needs and conditions of similar companies in other countries or companies in other industries.
On the Cayley graph of a commutative ring with respect to its zero-divisors
Ghodratollah Aalipour,Saieed Akbari
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unity and $R^{+}$ be $Z^*(R)$ be the additive group and the set of all non-zero zero-divisors of $R$, respectively. We denote by $\mathbb{CAY}(R)$ the Cayley graph $Cay(R^+,Z^*(R))$. In this paper, we study $\mathbb{CAY}(R)$. Among other results, it is shown that for every zero-dimensional non-local ring $R$, $\mathbb{CAY}(R)$ is a connected graph of diameter 2. Moreover, for a finite ring $R$, we obtain the vertex connectivity and the edge connectivity of $\mathbb{CAY}(R)$. We investigate rings $R$ with perfect $\mathbb{CAY}(R)$ as well. We also study $Reg(\mathbb{CAY}(R))$ the induced subgraph on the regular elements of $R$. This graph gives a family of vertex transitive graphs. We show that if $R$ is a Noetherian ring and $Reg(\mathbb{CAY}(R))$ has no infinite clique, then $R$ is finite. Furthermore, for every finite ring $R$, the clique number and the chromatic number of $Reg(\mathbb{CAY}(R))$ are determined.
Application of some combinatorial arrays in coloring of total graph of a commutative ring
Ghodratollah Aalipour,Saieed Akbari
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unity and $Z(R)$ and ${\rm Reg}(R)$ be the set of zero-divisors and non-zero zero-divisors of $R$, respectively. We denote by $T(\Gamma(R))$, the total graph of $R$, a simple graph with the vertex set $R$ and two distinct vertices $x$ and $y$ are adjacent if and only if $x+y\in Z(R)$. The induced subgraphs on $Z(R)$ and ${\rm Reg}(R)$ are denoted by $Z(\Gamma(R))$ and $Reg(\Gamma(R))$, respectively. These graphs were first introduced by D.F. Anderson and A. Badawi in 2008. In this paper, we prove the following result: let $R$ be a finite ring and one of the following conditions hold: (i) The residue field of $R$ of minimum size has even characteristic, (ii) Every residue field of $R$ has odd characteristic and $\frac{R}{J(R)}$ has no summand isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}_3\times \mathbb{Z}_3$, then the chromatic number and clique number of $T(\Gamma(R))$ are equal to $\max\{|\mathfrak{m}|\,:\, \mathfrak{m}\in {\rm Max}(R)\}$. The same result holds for $Z(\Gamma(R))$. Moreover, if the residue field of $R$ of minimum size has even characteristic or every residue field of $R$ has odd characteristic, then we determine the chromatic number and clique number of $Reg(\Gamma(R))$ as well.
Microbial Community from MTBE-Contaminated Soil for Aerobic Biodegradation of MTBE  [PDF]
Bahareh Montazeri, Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.41011
Abstract: This Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is one of the main additives in gasoline to increase octane rating and consequently reduce air pollution. The physico-chemical properties of this substance (high water solubility, low sorption in soil) result in high mobility and considerable concentrations in aquifers. In this survey, Isfehan Refinery that was encountered with MTBE contamination problem was selected as a case study and the MTBE degradation ability of this contaminated area by its indigenous microorganisms was investigated. In the first step of this survey, the influence of various factors on the aerobic degradation of MTBE such as mixed culture type, incubation time, microbial culture and optimal concentration of MTBE were investigated in shaking flasks and the most important factors were specified by means of fractional factorial design 1/2. In the second stage by using optimal values which obtained from the first stage, the effects of co-substare parameter and inoculum parameter were assayed by means of response surface method. The results of the experiments showed that the mixed culture type and initial concentration of MTBE were the most significant factors. The results of the experiments showed that the mixed indigenous culture acted better than activated sludge. The initial concentration of MTBE was also one of the most significant factors. At the best condition about 31 percent of MTBE was treated by co-substrating with n-hexane in a ratio of 0.2.
Quality of life data as prognostic indicators of survival in cancer patients: an overview of the literature from 1982 to 2008
Ali Montazeri
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-102
Abstract: A review was undertaken of all the full publications in the English language biomedical journals between 1982 and 2008. The search was limited to cancer, and included the combination of keywords 'quality of life', 'patient reported-outcomes' 'prognostic', 'predictor', 'predictive' and 'survival' that appeared in the titles of the publications. In addition, each study was examined to ensure that it used multivariate analysis. Purely psychological studies were excluded. A manual search was also performed to include additional papers of potential interest.A total of 451 citations were identified in this rapid and systematic review of the literature. Of these, 104 citations on the relationship between quality of life and survival were found to be relevant and were further examined. The findings are summarized under different headings: heterogeneous samples of cancer patients, lung cancer, breast cancer, gastro-oesophageal cancers, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, melanoma and other cancers. With few exceptions, the findings showed that quality of life data or some aspects of quality of life measures were significant independent predictors of survival duration. Global quality of life, functioning domains and symptom scores - such as appetite loss, fatigue and pain - were the most important indicators, individually or in combination, for predicting survival times in cancer patients after adjusting for one or more demographic and known clinical prognostic factors.This review provides evidence for a positive relationship between quality of life data or some quality of life measures and the survival duration of cancer patients. Pre-treatment (baseline) quality of life data appeared to provide the most reliable information for helping clinicians to establish prognostic criteria for treating their cancer patients. It is recommended that future studies should use valid instruments, apply sound methodological approaches and adequate multivariate statistical analyses adju
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