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OALib Journal期刊

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Effect of method of preparation on pioglitazone HCl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes
Beloshe Shrikant,Chougule Dhanyakumar,Shah Rohit,Ghodke Dhananjay
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Pioglitazone HCl is an antidiabetic agent with poor aqueous solubility. Inclusion complexes of pioglitazone HCl were prepared with β-cyclodextrin using various methods (physical mixing, kneading method, co-precipitation). The main aim of the present invention is to study the effect of the method of preparation on the dissolution profiles of pioglitazone HCl-β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes . The phase solubility profile of pioglitazone HCl with β-cyclodextrin was classified as AL-type and stability constant with 1:1 molar ratio was 115.45, calculated from the phase solubility diagram. Formation of the inclusion complex between pioglitazone HCl and β-cyclodextrin was confirmed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The dissolution profile of inclusion complexes were determined and compared with those of pioglitazone HCl alone and its physical mixtures. The dissolution rate of the pioglitazone HCl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex prepared by the co-precipitation method was six times higher when compared with the pure drug. The method of complexation of pioglitazone HCl in β-CD increased the dissolution rate of the drug in the following order: Coppt > KM > PM >Drug.
Effect of some physical parameters and crospovidone on directly compressed frusemide tablets
Chaulang Ganesh,Patil Kundan,Ghodke Dhananjay,Yeole Pramod
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing crospovidone (superdisintegrant) load on the characteristics of fast-disintegrating tablets for the potential use of the drug for its therapeutic effect. Five tablet formulations, F 0 , F 1 , F 3 , F 7 , and F 10 containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 7%, and 10% (w/w) of crospovidone, respectively, frusemide and microcrystalline cellulose (PH102), were prepared by direct compression, at a different compression forces. Tablet weight variation, content uniformity, crushing strength, disintegration time, wetting time, and in vitro release were measured for each formulation at each compression force. A linear increase in compression force resulted in an exponential increase in hardness for all formulations, a linear increase in disintegration and wetting times was observed for the formulations F 0 , F 1 , F 3 with the increase in compression force. The tablet formulation F 7 indicated, there was no effect of compression force on disintegration and wetting time. The in vitro release of the drug was increased with increase in concentration of crospovidone irrespective the compression force. However, storage under high humidity conditions caused the softening of the tablets containing the high amount of crospovidone, leading to softening of tablets. Fast disintegration of the tablets within 1-2 min is prerequisite for improving the dissolution of frusemide, attributed to increase in speed at which maximum surface area of sparingly soluble drug is exposed to the dissolution medium. However, tablet containing high amount of crospovidone must be protected from the atmospheric moisture because storage of these tablets at high humidity led to softening and losing the tablet characteristics.
Impact of formulation and process variable on the preparation of acyclovir microspheres by spray drying using factorial design
Madhuri L.Shinde, Virag A. Shah, Dhananjay S. Ghodke, Rohit R. Shah
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the impact of polymer ratio and feed flow rate (ml/min) in the preparation of acyclovir microspheres by using spray drying technique. A 32 full factorial experiment was designed to study the effects of the polymer ratio and feed flow rate (ml/min) of spray dryer on the percent yield and encapsulation efficiency of microspheres. The result of analysis of variance test for both effects indicated that the test is significant. The effect of factor X1 (polymer ratio) (SSY1=120.96; SSY2=357.38) is higher than factor X2 (feed flow rate) (SSY1=79.06; SSY2=88.94) for optimizing the percent yield and encapsulation efficiency. The optimum polymer ratio (X1) and feed flow rate (X2) was found to be 3.68 and 10.00 ml/min respectively for obtaining higher percent yield and maximum encapsulation efficiency of microspheres which was found to be 33.26% and 91.23% respectively.
Sialolithiasis: An unusually large asymptomatic submandibular salivary stone
Kamtane Smita,Ghodke Monali
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2013, DOI: 10.2298/sgs1301042k
Abstract: Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in submandibular gland or its duct and they are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes an asymptomatic patient presenting with a large submandibular duct sialolith, the subsequent non surgical management of the patient along with etiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for the treatment of salivary gland calculi depending on their site and size.
Oxidative Stress Responsive SERK1 Gene Directs the Progression of Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 310)  [PDF]
Dhananjay K. Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51012
Abstract:

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a prominent mode of regeneration in plants. The acquisition of SE is predominantly invoked by the oxidative stress which plays an important role in signal transduction and cellular redox. Since balanced generation of oxidants is important to cellular differentiation, modulation in cell redox could be responsive to genotypic refinement for SE. To study the dynamics of cellular redox during SE, we conducted comparative expression analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), using two independently purified near-isogenic lines for the trait of SE. We interrogated expression changes in cell-signaling factor Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (SERK) and activity of antioxidant Glutathione in different developmental stages including cotyledonary leaf, calli from different stages of regeneration of fully-regenerating (FR) and non-regenerating (NR) lines of Coker310 cultivar. At evolutionary scale, the cotton SERKs showed high sequence similarity in receptor kinase domain with diverse systems. Exclusively, SERK1 responsible for potential signaling processes during SE revealed significant expression up-regulation in the embryogenic calli of FR line. Similarly, activity of antioxidant glutathione was substantially up-regulated in embryogenic calli of FR line in comparison to its counterpart form. In contrast, calli from early-stages of regeneration of both FR and NR lines had no significant influences on the regulation of SERK and glutathione levels prior to the acquisition of embryogenesis. These results highlight that in vitro purification of FR line in cotton for enhanced regeneration potential (through SE) resulted in signaling and metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

Role of Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinases (SERKs) in Cell-to-Embryo Transitional Activity: Key at Novel Assorted Structural Subunits  [PDF]
Dhananjay Kumar Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521334
Abstract: Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (SERK) family of receptor kinases is functionally diverse, involved in cell-to-embryo transition and controlling a number of other fundamental aspects of plant development. The morphological transformation of somatic to embryonic cells has drawn scientific attention utmost due to remarkable genetic-switch system evolved across species. Receptor kinases having direct role in somatic embryogenesis (SE) and involved in other functions are designated as “SERK” and “SERK-like” genes, respectively. We aim for phylogenetic reconstruction to reveal major SERK groups across plant species (angiosperm to gymnosperm) for their functional diversification. Data indicate that the development of SERK proteins occurred prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Also, the SERK orthology is not directly proportional to their functions. Structure prediction results identified novel transmembrane topologies, short linear motifs and O-glycosylation sites exclusively in SERK proteins than SERK-like proteins. Comparative temporal expression analyses of SERK and SERK-like genes provided significant accordance with their physiological function. The identification of intrinsic disordered regions (IDRs) exclusively in SERK proteins was assumed to perceive external stress-induced signals that may lead to rapid protein folding. In a result it switches-on the precise cellular signals essential for the acquisition of SE. Moreover, the regulatory sequences of SERK genes are evolved with unique cellular fate deciding AP2-like ethylene responsive transcription factor AINTEGUMENTA binding sites for their spatial expression in SE. Based on these analyses we suggest future avenues of research that may be imperative for elucidating the importance of SERK gene evolution in SE.
Molecular Modeling and Simulation Studies of Acyl CoA Synthetaseof Mycobacteriumleprae
Dhananjay Kumar
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , 2013,
Abstract: Leprosy or Hansen’s disease is caused by an obligate intracellular pathogen i.e. Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy is a granulomatous disease of peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. This infectious disease results in Leprosy reactions that cause irreversible nerve damage and disabilities. The organism requires minimal set of functional genes for its survival. Most of the genes are involved in biosynthetic and metabolic pathways, so the product of these genes can be aimed for the novel drug target. Acyl CoA Synthetase is an enzyme that participates in fatty acid biosynthesis. The activation of fatty acids by Acyl-CoA Synthetase is the need of de novo lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism and remodeling of biological membranes. Therefore by emphasizing this protein as a drug target can help in the identification of novel drugs to cure leprosy. A well organized research comprising of analogue based drug design and molecular dynamics plays a major role in obtaining the lead molecules. The bacteria have developed resistance against many of the drugs available in the market. Therefore identification of the novel drug target and potent drug can be helpful in better prevention of the disease.
A Novel Web-based Approach for Balancing Usability and Security Requirements of Text Passwords
Dhananjay Kulkarni
International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications , 2010,
Abstract: Many Internet applications, for example e-commerce or email services require that users create a username and passwordwhich serves as an authentication mechanism. Though text passwords have been around for a while, not muchhas been done in helping naive Internet users in creating strong passwords. Generally users prefer easy-to-rememberpasswords, but service provides prefer that users use a strong, difficult-to-guess password policy to protect their ownresources. In this work we have explored how appropriate feedback on password strength can be useful in choosing astrong password. We first discuss the results of a security vs. usability study that we did, which shows the currenttrends in choosing passwords, and how a password cracking tools can easily guess a majority of weak passwords. Next,we propose a novel framework, which addresses our problem of enforcing password policies. Given a password policy,our framework is able to monitor password strength, and suggest passwords that are stronger. Moreover, since ourpasswords are pareto-efficient, and involve user participation in making a selection, we believe that our frameworkmakes appropriate tradeoffs between password strength and difficulty in remembering. We also propose novel ways tocompute the password reminder interval so that user-satisfaction remains within bounds. Experimental study showsthat our approach is much better that current password creation models, and serves as a practical tool that can beintegrated with Internet applications.
Corruption Fight and Language of Indian State: A Tale of the Indian Public Sphere
Dhananjay Rai
Canadian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720110704.053
Abstract: The fight against corruption has become an intrinsic aspect of Indian landscape. The movement remains more or less unorganised. Therefore, there is engagement of numerous individuals representing various ideological standpoints. One of the actors, who is a professional yoga practitioner and ideologically right winger, received initially warm welcome by Indian State. Due to failure of accord between the two, the state oppression unleashed against him. The kinds of language used by the Indian Government and ruling party against him would eventually strengthen the right wing tendencies in place of countering it in India. Key words: Non-state actor; State actors; Misconstrual of politics; Patriarchal nuances; Public sphere Résumé: La lutte contre la corruption est devenue un aspect intrinsèque du paysage indien. Le mouvement reste plus ou moins inorganisés. Par conséquent, il est l'engagement de nombreuses personnes représentant différents points de vue idéologiques. Un des acteurs, qui est un pratiquant du yoga professionnelle et l'ailier idéologiquement à droite, a re u un premier accueil chaleureux par l'état indien. En raison de l'échec de l'Accord entre les deux, l'oppression de l'état a déclenché contre lui. Les types de langage utilisé par le Parti et la décision du gouvernement indien contre lui serait éventuellement renforcer les tendances de droite au lieu de la contrer en Inde. Mots clés: Des acteurs non étatiques; Les acteurs étatiques; Le Misconstrual de la politique; Les nuances patriarcale; La sphère publique
Traditional Medicine to Modern Pharmacogenomics: Ayurveda Prakriti Type and CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphism Associated with the Metabolic Variability
Yogita Ghodke,Kalpana Joshi,Bhushan Patwardhan
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep206
Abstract: Traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda—classifies the human population into three major constituents or Prakriti known as Vata, Pitta and Kapha types. Earlier, we have demonstrated a proof of concept to support genetic basis for Prakriti. The descriptions in Ayurveda indicate that individuals with Pitta Prakriti are fast metabolizers while those of Kapha Prakriti are slow metabolizers. We hypothesized that different Prakriti may have different drug metabolism rates associated with drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) polymorphism. We did CYP2C19 (Phase I DME) genotyping in 132 unrelated healthy subjects of either sex by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. We observed significant association between CYP2C19 genotype and major classes of Prakriti types. The extensive metabolizer (EM) genotype (*1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3) was found to be predominant in Pitta Prakriti (91%). Genotype (*1/*3) specific for EM group was present only in Pitta Prakriti. Poor metabolizer (PM) genotype (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) was highest (31%) in Kapha Prakriti when compared with Vata (12%) and Pitta Prakriti (9%). Genotype (*2/*3) which is typical for PM group was significant in Kapha Prakriti (odds ratio = 3.5, P =  .008). We observed interesting correlations between CYP2C19 genotypes and Prakriti with fast and slow metabolism being one of the major distinguishing and differentiating characteristics. These observations are likely to have significant impact on phenotype-genotype correlation, drug discovery, pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.
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