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Chronic effects of moderate intensity endurance training on neuropathic pain symptoms in diabetic rats
Masoud Rahmati,Ali Khazani,Reza Gharakhanlou,Mansoureh Movaheddin
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain that occurs as an injury to neuronal cells and abnormality in nervous and immune systems function. Also diabetic neuropathy diseases accompany with variety of pain syndromes such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the chronic effects of incremental activity in the form of endurance training on neuropathic pain in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty eight adult male Wistar rats in the weight range of 326.3±8.4 gr, randomly assigned to four groups: diabetes and training, diabetes and not training, healthy and training and healthy and not training. -For inducing neuropathic pain, after twelve hours of food deprivation, intraperitoneal injection of STZ solution (45 mg/Kg) method was used. Two weeks after STZ injection, pain behaviors were measured with mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests. Then, the moderate intensity endurance training protocol was performed for six weeks and seventy two hours after the last training session, pain behavior tests were performed again. Results: Incremental activity in the form of moderate intensity endurance training led to significant improvement of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats. Also, in compare with diabetic control, training led to significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic training group. Conclusion: Incremental activity in the form of moderate intensity endurance training could have chronic effects on neuropathic pain improvement. So, it is suggested that moderate intensity endurance training could be used as a non-pharmacotherapy intervention in the field of neuropathic pain for suffering patients.
A PRACTICAL MODEL OF LOW-VOLUME HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES PERFORMANCE AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS THAT RESEMBLE 'ALL-OUT' SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING
Mahdi Bayati,Babak Farzad,Reza Gharakhanlou,Hamid Agha-Alinejad
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts × 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts × 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions
Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Acetylcholine Receptor at Slow and Fast Twitch Skeletal Muscles and Sciatic Nerve in Male Wistar Rats
Abdolhossein Parnow,Reza Gharakhanlou,Zeinab Gorginkaraji,Somayeh Rajabi,Rasoul Eslami,Mahdi Hedayati,Reza Mahdian
International Journal of Peptides , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/962651
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of endurance and resistance training (ET and RT) on CGRP and AChRs at slow and fast twitch muscles and sciatic nerve in rats. Twenty-five male rats were randomly assigned into three groups including sedentary (SED), endurance training (ET), and resistance training (RT). Animals of ET exercised for 12 weeks, five times/week, and 60?min/day at 30?m/min. Animals of RT were housed in metal cage with 2?m high wire-mesh tower, with water bottles set at the top. 48?h after the last session of training protocol, animals were anaesthetized. The right sciatic nerves were removed; then, Soleus (SOL) and Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were excised and immediately snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. All frozen tissues were stored at ?80°C. Results showed that, after both ET and RT, CGRP content as well as AChR content of SOL and TA muscles significantly increased. But there was no significant difference among groups at sciatic nerve’ CGRP content. In conclusion, data demonstrate that ET and RT lead to changes of CGRP and AChR content of ST and FT muscles. The changes indicate to the importance of neuromuscular activity. 1. Introduction Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), generated from the calcitonin gene [1–3], is distributed in the peripheral and central nervous systems of vertebrate and invertebrate species [4, 5]. CGRP’s target organs are numerous, and its range of biological actions is extensive; for instance, CGRP is a very potent vasodilator [4–7], possesses positive chronotropic and inotropic effects [8], modulates neurotransmission in central [9] and peripheral [9] synapses, and modulates systemic circulation [4, 10]. In the peripheral nervous system, CGRP coexists with ACh in motoneurons [3], and studies have shown that enhances the expression of the acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNA in skeletal muscles [11], and prolongs the mean open time of AChR channels [12]. Other studies also have indicated that motoneuron but not is upregulated by axotomy or blockade of neuronal activity, suggesting that this particular peptide plays a role in motoneuron regeneration [13, 14]. These results, therefore, suggest that acts as an anterograde “trophic” agent that controls the synthesis and function of muscle AChRs via cAMP-mediated pathways at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) [9, 15]. Its proposed effects at the NMJ include prolonged mean open time of AChR channels [13] and increased desensitization of AChR via a phosphorylation mechanism in the short term [16–19] and increased synthesis of AChR via a cAMP-associated
Wireless near-infrared spectroscopy of skeletal muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics during exercise and ischemia
Babak Shadgan,W. Darlene Reid,Reza Gharakhanlou,Lynn Stothers,Andrew John Macnab
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3233/spe-2009-0391
Abstract: The majority of in vivo applications of near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) monitoring use continuous wave instruments that require a fiberoptic cable connection between the subject and the instrument during monitoring. In studies of muscle physiology where subjects are exercising, and particularly in those who are engaged in sports activity, a wireless instrument with telemetric capacity provides obvious advantages. Having access to reliable telemetric NIRS technology will also increase the practicality and scope of this biomedical monitoring technique in clinical settings.
Medidas antropométricas como preditoras de fatores de risco cardiovascular na popula??o urbana do Ir?
Gharakhanlou, Reza;Farzad, Babak;Agha-Alinejad, Hamid;Steffen, Lyn M.;Bayati, Mahdi;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2012005000007
Abstract: background: overweight and obesity are an important public health problem in society, due to their association with various chronic diseases. objective: the purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of overweight and obesity, using different anthropometric measurements and to identify the best anthropometric indicator which is most closely related to cardiovascular disease (cvd) risk factors in an iranian urban population. methods: this cross-sectional study was conducted with 991 men and 1188 women aged 15 to 64 years. body mass index (bmi), waist circumference (wc), waist-to-hip ratio (whr), waist-to-height ratio (whtr) and percentage of body fat were measured. a fasting blood specimen was obtained. cvd risk factors, including fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (tchol), low-density (ldl-c) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (hdl-c) were assessed. results: based on bmi, more than 49% of men and 53% of women were either overweight or obese with 10.2% of men and 18.6% of women being obese. in both men and women, the prevalence of overweight was greater among 40-49 year olds and the prevalence of obesity was greater among those 50+ years. using the multiple regression analysis, bmi, whtr and whr explained the highest percentage of variation of triglycerides, tchol/hdl-c ratio and ldl-c in men, respectively, whereas whr explained the highest percentage of variation of triglycerides and wc explained the highest percentage of variation of tchol/hdl-c ratio and ldl-c in women. conclusion: our data indicated that whr and whtr were the anthropometric indicators that best predicted cvd risk factors in men and whr and wc in women.
Effect of 10 Week Strength Training on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Rate in Fast and Slow Twitch Skeletal Muscles of Rats
AH Parnow,Z Gourgin-e-Karaji,R Gharakhanlou,S Rajabi
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: This study aimed at determining the impact of strength training on the rate of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor(nAChR) at fast and slow twitch skeletal muscles of rats. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups randomly: control group(n=5) and strength-training group(n=5) which the latter group participated in a 10-week strength-training program. The strength training program consisted of climbing a 1-meter–long ladder set at 85° angle, with a weight attached to the rats’ tails. The attached weight was gradually increased from 35 g during the first session, to 600 g at the last session of the training program. Forty-eight hours after 10-week training, animals were anaesthetized with a mixture of Ketamine TM and Xylazine and the soleus and anterior tibialis were removed under sterile condition. After removal, tissues were quickly frizzed in liquid nitrogen and then were kept at -70 ° C for later usage. For nAChR assay, ELISA kit(Accurate Chemical, USA) was utilized. Results: The study results revealed that there was a significant difference between control and strength training groups in nAChR rate in both slow and fast twitch muscle (respectively, P= 0.00 and P=0.03 ). The results also showed that there was a significant difference among fast and slow twitch muscle’s nAChRs in strength(P=0.02), though such difference was not observed in control group(P= 0.07). Conclusion: Regarding significant increase of nAChR in both slow and fast twitch muscles following strength training, strength training seems to play a crucial role in increase of nAChR in fast and slow twitch muscle through neurotrophic factors that contribute to synthesis and clustering of nAChR.
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