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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 199829 matches for " Ghanshyam N. Pandey "
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Pharmacological Characterization of Inositol 1,4,5-tris Phosphate Receptors in Human Platelet Membranes
Yogesh Dwivedi,Ghanshyam N. Pandey
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/618586
Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis signaling system has been shown to be altered in platelets of depressed and schizophrenic subjects. Inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3), an integral component of the PI signaling system, mobilizes Ca2
Adenylyl cyclase-cyclicAMP signaling in mood disorders: Role of the crucial phosphorylating enzyme protein kinase A
Yogesh Dwivedi,Ghanshyam N Pandey
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2008,
Abstract: Yogesh Dwivedi, Ghanshyam N PandeyPsychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USAAbstract: Mood disorders are among the most prevalent and recurrent forms of psychiatric illnesses. In the last decade, there has been increased understanding of the biological basis of mood disorders. In fact, novel mechanistic concepts of the neurobiology of unipolar and bipolar disorders are evolving based on recent pre-clinical and clinical studies, most of which now focus on the role of signal transduction mechanisms in these psychiatric illnesses. Particular investigative emphasis has been given to the role of phosphorylating enzymes, which are crucial in regulating gene expression and neuronal and synaptic plasticity. Among the most important phosphorylating enzyme is protein kinase A (PKA), a component of adenylyl cyclase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AC cAMP) signaling system. In this review, we critically and comprehensively discuss the role of various components of AC cAMP signaling in mood disorders, with a special focus on PKA, because of the interesting observation that have been made about its involvement in unipolar and bipolar disorders. We also discuss the functional significance of the findings regarding PKA by discussing the role of important PKA substrates, namely, Rap-1, cyclicAMP-response element binding protein, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These studies suggest the interesting possibility that PKA and related signaling molecules may serve as important neurobiological factors in mood disorders and may be relevant in target-specific therapeutic interventions for these disorders.Keywords: protein kinase A, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, CREB, BDNF, Rap-1
Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso,Yogesh Dwivedi,Ghanshyam N. Pandey
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Abstract: Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ ( ) and age-matched healthy controls ( ). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, ?22%, ). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, ). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 ) (+9%, ) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, ) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2 ) was significantly lower (?12%, ) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (?19%, ) but not female (?13%, ) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, ) and female (+22%, ) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn ? 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 1. Introduction Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have two- to three-fold higher mortality rates compared with the general population, corresponding to an average 15-year reduction in life expectancy, and cross-sectional epidemiological studies have found that cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of excess premature mortality in SZ patients [1–6]. The etiology of elevated cardiovascular risk in SZ is likely multifactorial, potentially involving excessive smoking and alcohol use, lack of exercise, and poor diets [7, 8]. Moreover, second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications are associated with cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and weight gain [9–13], though these risk factors have also been reported in SGA-na?ve first-episode SZ patients [14–16]. Together, these data highlight an urgent need to identify risk and resilience factors associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk in SZ. An emerging body of evidence suggests that low levels of long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), are a modifiable risk factor for
5-Lipoxygenase in the Prefrontal Cortex of Suicide Victims
Tolga Uz, Yogesh Dwivedi, Ghanshyam N. Pandey, Rosalinda C. Roberts, Robert R. Conley, Radmila Manev and Hari Manev
The Open Neuropsychopharmacology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1876523800801010001]
Abstract: 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), an enzyme involved in leukotriene synthesis, is expressed in the brain and has been associated with Alzheimer’s disease and depression. Recently, it has been suspected that leukotriene receptor antagonists might be associated with suicide. In this work, we investigated the 5-LOX protein in the brain samples from depressed suicide victims and matching controls. We used Western immunoblotting with an antibody against Ser523-phosphorylated 5-LOX (p5-LOX) to evaluate protein kinase A-mediated 5-LOX phosphorylation, and in addition, an antibody against the total 5-LOX protein. In the total homogenate of the prefrontal cortex samples, 5-LOX content did not differ in the control and suicide groups but p5-LOX was significantly elevated in the suicide samples. The 5-LOX protein content was reduced in the membrane fraction and increased in the cytosol fraction of suicide victims. We propose that further studies of brain 5-LOX are needed to elucidate the functional implications of the protein alterations observed in our present study, and to further explore a putative role of 5-LOX in depression and suicide.
Nepalese Schoolchildren as Research Participants: Challenges in Qualitative Research  [PDF]
Ghanshyam Bishwakarma
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.51005
Abstract: The present research explores the potential methodological challenges in conducting qualitative fieldwork using schoolgirls in Nepal as participants. It particularly focuses on the logistic, academic, and social challenges that impact on the scholarly inquiry into aspects of schooling and the wider society in rural Nepal. The participants in this study were schoolgirls, and school drop-outs girls (12 - 16 years old), from Dalit community in Nepal. Schoolchildren, both in school and school drop-outs particularly girls, are an invaluable source of information on society and schooling. Although school-aged girls have the right to express their views, perceptions, opinions, and competencies, as much as adults do. However, their participation in research activities has been very rare in Nepal. This research applies various methodological tools to carry out this qualitative study in the school setting in Nepal and highlights the challenges associated with these methodologies, particularly the challenges related to confidentiality and interactions when using children as research participants.
Modal Analysis of Azimuthally Periodic Vane-Loaded Cylindrical Waveguide Interaction Structure for Gyro-Twt
Ghanshyam Singh;B. N N. Basu
PIER , 2007, DOI: 10.2528/PIER07010601
Abstract: Abstract-This article discusses the gain-frequency characteristics of most competing modes of azimuthally periodic vane-loaded cylindrical waveguide interaction structure for gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro- TWT) amplifier, which is the device of increasing importance because of its high-power and broad bandwidth capabilities. Vane-loading is identified as a means to achieve a low-beam energy, high-harmonic, low-magnetic field, mode-selective and stable operation of a gyro- TWT, and thus the development of a simple approach to the analysis of a vane-loaded gyro-TWT have been identified as a problem of practical relevance.
Fungal sinusitis with ocular involvement: Case report  [PDF]
Achyut N. Pandey, Anil Kakde
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.29134
Abstract:


Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is an acute, often fatal, fungal infection caused by members of the class Zygomycetes and the order Mucorales. The genus Rhizopus accounts for most cases of ROCM. The disease is characterized by fungal hyphal invasion of blood vessels resulting in thrombosis and infarction of the nasal, paranasal sinus, orbital, and cerebral tissues. The most commonly associated condition is diabetes mellitus; other associated conditions include immunocompromised states, renal disease, deferoxamine use and acidotic states. The most frequent sites of infection are pulmonary, rhinocerebral, cutaneous and disseminated. Rhino-orbital and Rhino-cerebral are two forms of the disease. As such the condition is a medical emergency. Early recognition and treatment are essential because it may lead to death in a few days. CROP usually begins in the palate or paranasal sinuses and rapidly spreads to the orbital contents. Proptosis, loss of vision and ophthalmoplegia occur and death from cerebral involvement commonly ensues. The fungus tends to invade arteries and cause thrombosis and tissue infarction. Rhizopus is the most commonly isolated genus in CROP, accounting for almost all cases. The diagnosis can be strongly suspected by the characteristic clinical manifestations. Therapy includes the treatment of the underlying disease, surgical excision of the necrotic tissue containing fungal elements and the systemic administration of amphotericin-B. Here we report the clinical features of a 32-years-old man presented mucormycosis.


A Clinical Study of Pterygium and Results of Treatment by Excision and Limbal Autograft or Augmented with Post-Op Mitomycin C  [PDF]
Achyut N. Pandey, Nishant Marken, Ravinder Marken, Bhuwan Chandra Pandey
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.34023
Abstract:

Aim: To prospectively analyze the clinical profile of pterygium and to compare results of management by excision with limbal conjunctival autograft or postoperative topical Mitomycin C drops. Methodology: Study was conducted over a period of 23 months, at a tertiary eye care hospital including 80 eyes of 80 patients who underwent surgery, out of which 40 underwent limbal conjunctival autograft and the remaining 40 underwent pterygium excision followed by Mitomycin C after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. A detailed history was taken and recorded regarding the disease with reference to age, occupation, residence, exposure to dust and hot wind. The extent of corneal involvement by the pterygium was noted. The patients were followed after one week and then monthly for a year. BCVA were noted on every visit and slit lamp examination was done for recurrence, sclera thinning and corneal vascularisation. Result: 80 eyes of 80 patients were enrolled with male preponderance, out of which 40 underwent limbal conjunctival autograft (gr. A) and the remaining 40 underwent pterygium excision followed by Mitomycin C (gr. B). All patients were in the age group of 23 to 70 years. The study showed a higher incidence of pterygium in the age group of 41-50 years with male preponderance probably due to chronic dryness, and exposure to ultraviolet light, dust, and hot winds. The right eye was more affected than the left eye, and nasal side was more involved than the temporal side. The recurrence among group A was 2 out of 40 with a recurrence rate of 5% and among group B was 3 out of 40 with a recurrence rate of 7.5%. Scleral thinning was seen in two cases (5%) in patients who underwent pterygium excision followed by Mitomycin C. Conclusion: Conjunctival limbal autograft and postoperative MMC (0.02%) are both safe and effective adjuncts to primary pterygium surgery. The main prejudices against autografting are the expertise and time

Knowledge of Pregnant Women regarding HIV/AIDS
N Pandey
Journal of Chitwan Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jcmc.v3i3.8632
Abstract: A descriptive study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among the pregnant women in antenatal clinic of Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. Sixty pregnant women were selected using non- probability purposive sampling technique. A pretested Nepali version semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect the data from them. Ethical consideration was maintained throughout the study. The obtained data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data are presented in different tables. Findings related to socio-demographic characteristics revealed that half (50%) percent of the respondents belonged to the age of 20-24years. Majority (88.3%) of the respondents were literate and (85%) of them belonged to Hindu religion. Findings showed that (90%) of respondents have heard about HIV/AIDS. The most common sources of information of HIV/AIDS were Television (77.8%), Radio (75%) and newspapers (66.7%). Regarding transmis-sion of HIV/AIDS, majority (88.9%) knew that HIV/AIDS is transmitted from sexual contact with infected person (81.5%) knew from infected blood transfusion and (70.4%) said from infected mother to child. More than (80%) of respondents said that commercial sex worker and having multiple sex workers were the high risk group for HIV/AIDS. Majority (77.8%) said by avoiding multiple sex partners and (72.2%) being faithful to the partner was the preventive measures of HIV/AIDS. Majority (61%) of respondents did not know the relationship between STI and HIV/AIDS. Majority (68.5%) of respon-dents did not know that there is available of drugs which lengthen the living years of life of people living with HIV/AIDS. Majority 51(98.1%) knew the use of condom is to prevent pregnancy, 44(84.6%) said prevent HIV/AIDS, 29(55.8%) said control STI. Although majority of the respondents had knowledge regarding the high risk group, mode of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS, some lacking areas has been identified that majority of the respondents were not aware about the the relationship between STI and HIV/AIDS. They also lacked awareness that use of condom controls STI and about avail-ability of drug which prevents progression of HIV infection. On the basis of finding, it is concluded that health education and awareness programme should be planned to women attending the antenatal clinic to enhance their knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention and management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmc.v3i3.8632 Journal of Chitwan Medical College 2013; 3(3): 18-21
Knowledge and Practice of Mothers Regarding the Prevention of Anemia during Pregnancy, in Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu
N Ghimire,N Pandey
Journal of Chitwan Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jcmc.v3i3.8631
Abstract: Iron deficiency anaemia is one of the main causes of anemia during pregnancy as it is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge and practice of mothers regarding the prevention of anemia during pregnancy among mothers who delivered in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH). Convenient purposive sampling technique was adopted and mothers were included in the study who delivered in TUTH during four weeks period of data collection. They were interviewed by administering semi structured questionnaire. Chi-square test was applied to assess the association between variables. The test result shows that there was significant association in level of knowledge to the educational status regarding prevention of anemia during pregnancy (p=0.002). Furthermore, the study also revealed that there was significant association between frequencies of antenatal care (ANC) visit to the level of knowledge (p=0.007) as well as level of practice (p=0.043) of mothers about pre-vention of anemia in pregnancy. From the result of the study, it is concluded that the majority of mothers had not adequate knowledge and poor practice regarding prevention of anemia during pregnancy.? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmc.v3i3.8631 Journal of Chitwan Medical College 2013; 3(3): 14-15
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