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Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn
Ghaisas M,Shaikh S,Deshpande A
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2009,
Abstract: To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn, to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. The effect of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) on the primary and secondary antibody responses was evaluated by the humoral antibody response for a specific immune response. The effect of EBV on the phagocytic activity was evaluated by the carbon clearance test and neutrophil activation was evaluated by the neutrophil adhesion test for a nonspecific immune response. The data was analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramar multiple comparison tests. On oral administration, EBV showed a significant increase in the primary and secondary humoral antibody responses, by increasing the hemagglutinating antibody titre at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. There was a significant increase in the phagocytic index and percentage neutrophil adhesion at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. The present study reveals that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn holds a promise as an immunomodulatory agent, which acts probably by stimulating both the specific and nonspecific arms of immunity.
Thermal noise and the branching threshold in brittle fracture
L. M. Sander,S. V. Ghaisas
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.1994
Abstract: Many studies have confirmed that cracks in brittle materials branch when the crack speed exceeds a certain threshold velocity, but the value of that threshold is not understood. Almost all theoretical calculations overestimate the threshold by factors of two or more. We show that thermal noise can reduce the threshold by a substantial amount, and we propose that this effect can account for the discrepancy.
Evaluations of antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract
Badhe S,Badhe R,Ghaisas M,Chopade V
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was designed to screen antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum (AP) root extract. An experiment was designed by different method such as Locomotor activity, Haloperidol-induced catalepsy, Forced swim test (FST), Tail suspension test (TST), Clonidine-induced hypothermia and Reserpine-induced hypothermia on Swiss male albino mice. Standard root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum (AP root extract) showed an increase in ambulatory behaviour indicating a stimulant effect of the photoactometer. AP root extract produces a significant antidepressant effect in both FST and TST as they reduced the immobility. AP root extract was found to be effective in reversing hypothermia produced by clonidine and reserpine. In our study, we found that AP root extract inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These study suggest that AP root extract might produce antidepressant effect by interaction with adrenergic and dopamine receptor thereby increasing the level of noradrenaline and dopamine in brains of mice.
In-Vivo Animal Models For Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Anupama A. Suralkar,Prashant S. Sarda,Mahesh M. Ghaisas,Vishnu N. Thakare
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: Inflammation is protective and defense mechanism of the body. During inflammatory conditions various pathological changes are take place. The production of active inflammatory mediators is triggered by microbial products or by host proteins, such as proteins of the complement, kinins and coagulation systems that are themselves are activated by microbes and damaged tissues. In preclinical studies, these changes can be induced by administration of the agents causing inflammation. For purpose of evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity we have focused on some in vivo animal models which are commonly used in laboratory practice. Numerous reports have been demonstrated in increase incidence of inflammatory condition. It is one of the most important natural defence mechanisms. Its main purpose is to destroy the injurious agent and/or to minimize its ill effects by limiting its spread. Though inflammation is protective in some situations if untreated can lead to serious complications. Inflammation is the dynamic pathological process consisting of a series of interdependent changes.
Defect Formation and Crossover Behavior in the Dynamic Scaling Properties of Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. DasSarma,C. J. Lanczycki,S. V. Ghaisas,J. M. Kim
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: Stochastic simulation results, appropriate for Molecular Beam Epitaxy, involving ballistic deposition and thermally activated Arrhenius diffusion of adatoms are presented for one- and two-dimensional substrates, allowing for overhangs and bulk vacancies. The asymptotic Kardar-Parisi- Zhang universality is found to be triggered by a sudden nucleation of large-scale defect formation in the growing film that shows a distinct dependence on dimensionality. The pre-nucleation transient behavior, which may be of experimental relevance due to the low defect content, is associated with standard solid-on-solid universality classes.
Straight cracks in dynamic brittle fracture
O. Pla,F. Guinea,E. Louis,S. V. Ghaisas,L. M. Sander
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We study the dynamics of cracks in brittle materials when the velocity of the crack is comparable to the sound velocity by means of lattice simulations. Inertial and damped dynamics are analyzed. It is shown that dissipation strongly influences the shape of the crack. While inertial cracks are highly unstable, dissipation can stabilize straight cracks. Our results can help to explain recent experiments on PMMA.
Mounding Instability and Incoherent Surface Kinetics
S. V. Ghaisas
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.67.010601
Abstract: Mounding instability in a conserved growth from vapor is analysed within the framework of adatom kinetics on the growing surface. The analysis shows that depending on the local structure on the surface, kinetics of adatoms may vary, leading to disjoint regions in the sense of a continuum description. This is manifested particularly under the conditions of instability. Mounds grow on these disjoint regions and their lateral growth is governed by the flux of adatoms hopping across the steps in the downward direction. Asymptotically ln(t) dependence is expected in 1+1- dimensions. Simulation results confirm the prediction. Growth in 2+1- dimensions is also discussed.
Surface Kinetics and Generation of Different Terms in a Conservative Growth Equation
S. V. Ghaisas
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.011605
Abstract: A method based on the kinetics of adatoms on a growing surface under epitaxial growth at low temperature in (1+1) dimensions is proposed to obtain a closed form of local growth equation. It can be generalized to any growth problem as long as diffusion of adatoms govern the surface morphology. The method can be easily extended to higher dimensions. The kinetic processes contributing to various terms in the growth equation (GE) are identified from the analysis of in-plane and downward hops. In particular, processes corresponding to the (h -> -h) symmetry breaking term and curvature dependent term are discussed. Consequence of these terms on the stable and unstable transition in (1+1) dimensions is analyzed. In (2+1) dimensions it is shown that an additional (h -> -h) symmetry breaking term is generated due to the in-plane curvature associated with the mound like structures. This term is independent of any diffusion barrier differences between in-plane and out of-plane migration. It is argued that terms generated in the presence of downward hops are the relevant terms in a GE. Growth equation in the closed form is obtained for various growth models introduced to capture most of the processes in experimental Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth. Effect of dissociation is also considered and is seen to have stabilizing effect on the growth. It is shown that for uphill current the GE approach fails to describe the growth since a given GE is not valid over the entire substrate.
Stochastic Model in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Universality With Minimal Finite Size Effects
S. V. Ghaisas
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.022601
Abstract: We introduce a solid on solid lattice model for growth with conditional evaporation. A measure of finite size effects is obtained by observing the time invariance of distribution of local height fluctuations. The model parameters are chosen so that the change in the distribution in time is minimum. On a one dimensional substrate the results obtained from the model for the roughness exponent $\alpha$ from three different methods are same as predicted for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. One of the unique feature of the model is that the $\alpha$ as obtained from the structure factor $S(k,t)$ for the one dimensional substrate growth exactly matches with the predicted value of 0.5 within statistical errors. The model can be defined in any dimensions. We have obtained results for this model on a 2 and 3 dimensional substrates.
Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation And Its Critical Exponents Through Local Slope-Like Fluctuations
S. V. Ghaisas
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Growth of interfaces during vapor deposition are analyzed on a discrete lattice. Foe a rough surface, relation between the roughness exponent alpha, and corresponding step-step (slope-slope) couplings is obtained in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. From the discrete form and the symmetries of the growth problem, the step -step couplings can be determined. Thus alpha can be obtained. The method is applied to Edward-Wilkinson type and Kardar- Parisi -Zhang equations in all the dimensions to obtain exact values of alpha. It is further applied to the fourth order linear and non linear terms. Exact values of roughness coefficients in these cases are obtained. The method is thus applicable to any linear or nonlinear stochastic equation with non conserved noise for obtaining the exact asymptoic exponents.
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