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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198242 matches for " Germán; Balza "
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Impacto económico del dengue y del dengue hemorrágico en el Estado de Zulia, Venezuela, 1997-2003
A?ez,Germán; Balza,René; Valero,Nereida; Larreal,Yraima;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892006000500004
Abstract: objectives: to determine the direct and indirect costs of medical care provided to cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (dhf/dss) between 1997 and 2003 in zulia state, venezuela. methods: the total number of patients with dengue and dhf/dss was obtained from records belonging to the regional epidemiology office of the state of zulia and from reports of cases that were confirmed in the virology section of dr. americo negrette?s clinical research institute, zulia university, maracaibo, venezuela, between 1 january 1997 and 31 december 2003. direct costs included the cost of emergency medical care for all cases and hospital costs for cases with dhf/dss (cost per bed-day and laboratory expenses). the costs connected to absence from work among patients over 15 years of age and mothers who accompanied their children under 15 years of age comprised the indirect costs, which were adjusted for the proportion of men and women in the labor force. calculations were based on the minimum yearly wage, and results were given in united states dollars, converted according to each year?s average exchange rate. results: during the study period, 33 857 cases of dengue and dhf/dss were seen. of them, 30 251 (89.35%) were cases of dengue, and 3 606 (10.65%) were cases of dhf/dss. six cases of dhf/dss died (lethality rate: 0.2 per 100 cases of dhf/dss). direct costs were us$ 474 251.70; of these costs, us$ 132 042.30 were spent on emergency medical care and us$ 342 209.40 on the hospital costs of dhf/dss cases. indirect costs were us$ 873 825.84 and comprised 64.8% of overall expenditures (us$ 1 348 077.54) connected to this disease during the study years. conclusions: this is the first study on the economic impact of dengue in the state of zulia and in venezuela. in spite of some limitations, results show that dengue is an important public health problem that causes great expense because of temporary absenteeism from work and that undermines regional and nati
Conceptos sobre espacio público, gestión de proyectos y lógica social: reflexiones sobre la experiencia chilena
León Balza,Sergio F.;
EURE (Santiago) , 1998, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71611998007100002
Abstract: the present document deals with a series of definitions of urban open space, proposing the use of the term collectively used urban spaces, understood as the network of publicly and privately owned spaces and edifications used by the population for its recreation and circulation, either on a permanent or regular basis, being explicitly linked with one another at the scale of the pedestrian. according to the author this concept brings together the particular approach of several disciplines, particularly architecture, engineering, landscape design and landscape ecology, as well as the regulations that norm the products of these professions, opening an ample range of action possibilities for urban planners and managers. the article discusses the necessity of understanding urban open space projects as urban renewal opportunities that provide fresh financial and other resources to city management, and illustrates some of the benefits of incorporating the administration and maintenance of urban open spaces as an essential part of the process of materialisation of different initiatives, where the participation of urban actors and the avoidance of an excessively technocratic approach are essential elements
Conceptos sobre espacio público, gestión de proyectos y lógica social: reflexiones sobre la experiencia chilena
Sergio F. León Balza
EURE (Santiago) , 1998,
Abstract: Este documento trata de una serie de definiciones de espacio abierto urbano público, proponiendo el uso de la expresión espacios urbanos colectivamente usados, entendido como la red de espacios de dominio público y privado y edificaciones utilizado por la población para su recreación y circulación, sea de manera permanente o regular, estando ligados específicamente uno al otro en el plano peatonal. Según el autor, este concepto une el enfoque particular de varias disciplinas, particularmente, arquitectura, ingeniería, dise o paisajístico y ecología paisajística, así como las reglas que rigen el producto de esas profesiones, abriendo un amplio rango de posibilidades de acción para planificadores y administradores urbanos. El artículo se refiere a la necesidad de entender los proyectos de espacios abiertos como oportunidades de renovación urbana que proveen nuevo financiamiento y otros recursos a la gestión de la ciudad, e ilustra algunos de los beneficios que entra a el incorporar la administración y mantención de espacios urbanos abiertos como parte esencial del proceso de materialización de distintas iniciativas, donde la participación de actores urbanos y la evitación de un enfoque excesivamente tecnocrático son factores esenciales The present document deals with a series of definitions of urban open space, proposing the use of the term collectively used urban spaces, understood as the network of publicly and privately owned spaces and edifications used by the population for its recreation and circulation, either on a permanent or regular basis, being explicitly linked with one another at the scale of the pedestrian. According to the author this concept brings together the particular approach of several disciplines, particularly architecture, engineering, landscape design and landscape ecology, as well as the regulations that norm the products of these professions, opening an ample range of action possibilities for urban planners and managers. The article discusses the necessity of understanding urban open space projects as urban renewal opportunities that provide fresh financial and other resources to city management, and illustrates some of the benefits of incorporating the administration and maintenance of urban open spaces as an essential part of the process of materialisation of different initiatives, where the participation of urban actors and the avoidance of an excessively technocratic approach are essential elements
Analysis of Pseudoreplicants to Evaluate Natural Regeneration after Applying Prescribed Burns in a Temperate Forest of Mexico  [PDF]
José Germán Flore Garnica
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.21002
Abstract: Although fire is one of the most important disturbing factors of forest in Mexico, little it is known on the effects of fire on the particular Mexican forest ecosystems. This is remarked for the fact that the effects of fires on vegetation vary among different types of forests. This lack of knowledge has constrained the use of fire, as a silvicultural tool. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the effects of fire on regeneration, under burns. This work was carried out in a pine forest stand at Tapalpa Saw in Jalisco State, Mexico, dominated by Pinus michoacana and Pinus oocarpa. The study evaluated the effects of two techniques of prescribed burning: 1) backing, and 2) head fire. The sample plots were burned on 25 and 26 March 1991, before the rain season. One month before and 2 years after burning several measurements were made in order to evaluate the effect of fire on regeneration. Due to the limitations to work with “real” replicates (for treatments an control), original sample units (20 × 30 m) were divided into 5 × 5 m smaller sample units, which were considered as pseudoreplicants. Therefore, such analysis did not avoid introducing systematic error (bias) and minimize random error. Nevertheless, the variability within the pseudoreplicants was considerable in order to assume certain significance of the resulting estimations. Therefore, despite that this was a nonreplicated study; the results suggest strong ecological evidence that prescribed fire enhance natural regeneration of Pinus michoacana and Pinus oocarpa. In general, it is concluded that prescribed burning could be a valuable forest management tool in regions with similar conditions to the study area, in order to improve regeneration. However, further research is needed before prescribed fires can be applied with confidence in many Mexican forest conditions.
Is the Space-Time a Superconductor?  [PDF]
Wenceslao Santiago-Germán
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.410174
Abstract:

At the fundamental level, the 4-dimensional space-time of our direct experience might not be a continuum and discrete quantum entities might “collectively” rule its dynamics. Henceforth, it seems natural to think that in the “low-energy” regime some of its distinctive quantum attributes could, in principle, manifest themselves even at macroscopically large scales. Indeed, when confronted with Nature, classical gravitational dynamics of spinning astrophysical bodies is known to lead to paradoxes: to untangle them, dark matter or modifications to the classical law of gravity are openly considered. In this article, the hypothesis of a fluctuating space-time acquiring “at large distances” the properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate is pushed forward: firstly, it is shown that a natural outcome of this picture is the production of monopoles, dyons, and vortex lines of “quantized” gravitomagnetic—or gyrogravitational—flux along the transition phase; the minimal supported “charge” (and multiples of it) being directly linked with a nonzero (minimal) vacuum energy. Thus, a world of vibrating, spinning, interacting strings whose only elements in their construction are our topological concepts of space and time is envisioned, and they are proposed as tracers of the superfluid features of the space-time: the archetypal embodiment of these physical processes being set by the “gravitational roton”, an analogue of Landau’s classic higher-energy excitation used to explain the superfluid properties of helium II. The far and the near field asymptotics of string line solutions are presented and used to deduce their pair-interaction energy. Remarkably, it is found that two stationary, axis-aligned, quantum space-time vortices with the same sense of spin not only exhibit zones of repulsion but also of attraction, depending on their relative geodetic distance.

Spatial Distribution of Fuel Models Based on the Conditional-Fuel-Loading Concept  [PDF]
José Germán Flores Garnica
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.92009
Abstract: Fuel model mapping has followed in general two trends: 1) indirect inferences, where some factors, presumably associated with fuel production, are related to a given fuel model; and 2) experts consulting, which has been used to classify and to validate other people classifications. However, reliance on expert judgment implies a subjective approach. Thus, I propone the integration of geostatistic techniques and the Conditional-Fuels-Loading concept (CFL) to define a more objective perspective in the fuel-model mapping. The information used in this study was collected in a forest of Chihuahua, Mexico, where fuels were inventoried in 554 (1000 m2) sample plots. These sample plots were classified using the CFL; and ordinary kriging (Gaussian, spherical and exponential) was used to interpolate the fuel-model values. Using the Akaike’s Information Criterion the spherical model performed best. The methodology allowed a finer definition of spatial distribution of fuel models. Some advantages of the CFL are: 1) it is based on actual fuel loads, and not only on vegetation structure and composition; 2) it is objective and avoids the bias of different classifiers (experts); and 3) it avoids the need of the advice of experts.
Structure and Density Analysis of a Semi Desert Ecosystem Disturbed by Fire  [PDF]
José Germán Flores Garnica
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.82011
Abstract: In Mexico, forest ecosystems are disturbed by fires and generally these are considered to have negative impacts. However, it is important to consider that fire is an element of these ecosystems, and is important for its functionality. So it should be understood that in many cases the effects of a forest fire are beneficial, which can be determined through studies of population dynamics of these ecosystems. However, most of these studies currently focused only on aspects of species composition, with few cases concerning the analysis of the structure and density. In this study, a comparative analysis of the vegetation showed that conditions prevailing between burned and unburned areas of a site covered by microphyll desert species (shrubs and mesquite). The results suggest that the structure and density conditions of vegetation between burned and unburned areas are not statistically different. This is highlighted because one year after the fire occurred there is no evidence that fire had altered the structure and density of vegetation. Moreover, both in burned and unburned areas, vegetation had a healthy condition. Finally, although this may suggests that the fire was of low intensity, which resulted in a low impact on vegetation, in future studies it is recommended to determine if the same results are observed under different possible fire behavior and intensity.
Tasa de crecimiento en larvas de Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 (Pisces: Clupeidae) del Morro de Puerto Santo, Venezuela
Balza,María Alejandra; Lemus,Mairin; Marín,Baumar;
Interciencia , 2007,
Abstract: daily changes in the microestructure of the sagitta otolith growth rings of sardinella aurita larvae were related to somatic and biochemical growth. somatic and biochemical growth were expressed as length/age and rna/dna ratio, respectively. age and the growth of 221 sardine larvae from morro de puerto santo, venezuela were estimated measuring daily increments in sagitta otoliths and morfometric characters. the nucleic acids and the rna/dna ratio were determined by fluorescence. the larval size structure from days 1 to 23 ranged from 2.2 to 17.0mm ls. the increase in size (sl, standard length in mm) as a function of age is expressed by ls= 2.76+0.60×age (r2= 0.83; p<0.001). larval growth rate and back-calculated growth rate were 0.60 and 0.69mm/day, respectively. the average levels of nucleic acids were rna/larvae= 1.53μg and dna/larvae= 0.62μg, while rna/dna= 2.61. a highly significant relationship between growth rate and rna/dna ratio was found in the sagitta otoliths (r2= 0.83; p<0.001). the larval growth estimated parameters for s. aurita in this study were within the range registered for this species and for other clupeids in different latitudes.
An Inexact Restoration Package for Bilevel Programming Problems  [PDF]
Elvio A. Pilotta, Germán A. Torres
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330181
Abstract: Bilevel programming problems are a class of optimization problems with hierarchical structure where one of the con-straints is also an optimization problem. Inexact restoration methods were introduced for solving nonlinear programming problems a few years ago. They generate a sequence of, generally, infeasible iterates with intermediate iterations that consist of inexactly restored points. In this paper we present a software environment for solving bilevel program-ming problems using an inexact restoration technique without replacing the lower level problem by its KKT optimality conditions. With this strategy we maintain the minimization structure of the lower level problem and avoid spurious solutions. The environment is a user-friendly set of Fortran 90 modules which is easily and highly configurable. It is prepared to use two well-tested minimization solvers and different formulations in one of the minimization subproblems. We validate our implementation using a set of test problems from the literature, comparing different formulations and the use of the minimization solvers.
ética corporal y sexuación: plasticidad y fluidez en el sujeto del postfeminismo
Balza, Isabel;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2011000100003
Abstract: the sexual position analyzed by jacques lacan in his seminar xx (1973) shows the structure of normative heterosexuality: a binary order of the sexed bodies assuming two exclusive modes of sexuality. this sexual economy encodes the equation having/being the phallus. facing the lacanian body ethics, feminist thought has posed other sexual positions. i propose to analyze monique wittig's radical feminism, interpreting the lesbian body (1973) as a critical mode of being the lacanian phallus, and to examine judith butler's critique in her discussion of the lesbian phallus (bodies that matter, 1993). butler breaks the exclusive binary logic, opening the possibility for a sexed body to be and to have the phallus simultaneously. lastly, i will examine the proposal of dildoes that beatriz preciado raises in her manifesto contra-sexual (2002).
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